Advertisement

Solar Composition

  • Claudio Vita-FinziEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Until the late 1920s it was accepted that Sun and Earth had very similar compositions. The revelation that the Sun is composed primarily of hydrogen prompted novel models for its evolution and hence for solar irradiance and magnetism, and it was an essential step towards the current nuclear scheme with its dependence on hydrogen-helium transformation. Nowadays solar composition is investigated by a number of strategies which bear on different parts of the Sun, notably spectroscopy primarily of the photosphere and direct chemical assay of the corona by way of the solar wind, complemented by geochemical analysis of pristine carbonaceous chondritic meteorites, which are thought to have originated in the same nebula as the Sun. The results are evaluated in the light of models of the solar interior and the findings of helioseismology, and they bear on attempts to trace the origins of the solar system, the genesis of stars, and ultimately the origin of the elements in our galaxy and indeed in the universe as a whole.

References

  1. 1.
    Asplund M, Grevesse N, Sauval AJ (2005) The solar chemical composition. In Barnes TG III & Bash FN (eds) Cosmic abundances as records of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis, ASP Conf 336:25–38Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Asplund M et al (2009) The chemical composition of the Sun. Annu Rev Astron Astrophys 47, 481–522ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Balogh A, Marsdenet RG, Smith EJ (2001) The heliosphere near solar minimum: the Ulysses perspective. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Campbell IH, O’Neill HSC (2012) Evidence against a chondritic Earth. Nature 483:554–558ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    DeVorkin DH (2010) Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence: CH Payne, HN Russell and standards of evidence in early quantitative stellar spectroscopy. J Astron Hist Heritage 13:139–144Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Diehl R et al (2016) Radioactive 26Al from massive stars in the Galaxy. Nature 439:45–47Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eddington AS (1926) The internal constitution of the stars. Cambridge Univ Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    François P et al (2004) The evolution of the Milky Way from its earliest phases: constraints on stellar nucleosynthesis. Astron Astrophys 421: 613–621ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Galvin AB and 26 others (1996) Solar wind composition: first results from SOHO and future expectations. Bull Am Astr Soc 28: 897Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Geiss J, Gloeckler G (2007) Linking primordial to solar and galactic composition. Space Sci Rev 130: 5–26ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gorshkov A B & Baturin V A 2008 Diffusion settling of heavy elements in the solar interior. Astron Rep 52:760–771ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gounelle M. and Zolensky M. E. 2014. The Orgueil meteorite: 150 years of history. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 49:1769–1794ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grevesse N, Noels A (1993) Origin and evolution of the elements. Cambridge Univ Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grevesse N & Sauval AJ (2002) The composition of the solar photosphere. Adv Space Res 30:3–11ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    King AJ et al (2015) Modal mineralogy of CI and CI-like chondrites by X-ray diffraction. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 165, 148–160ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koch GS, Link RF (1970) Statistical analysis of geological data. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lodders K (2003) Solar system abundances and condensation temperatures of the elements. Astrophys J 591: 1220–124ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Myers JC (1997) Geostatistical error management. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Neckel H (1994) Solar absolute reference spectrum. Int Asr Un Colloq 143:37–44ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Payne CH (1925) Stellar atmospheres. Harvard Univ Press, Cambridge MassGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pevtsov AA, Bertello L, Marble AR (2004) The sun-as-a-star solar spectrum. Astron Nachr 335: 21–26ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Phillips KJH (1992) Guide to the Sun. Cambridge Univ Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reames DV (2013) The two sources of solar energetic particles. Space Sci Rev 175:53ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Reames DV (2014) Element abundances in solar energetic particles and the solar corona. Solar Phys 289:977–993ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rosenberg DE (2016) Automation of spectroscopic observations on the Dark Sky Observatory 32-inch telescope. MSc thesis, Appalachian State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Russell HN (1929) On the composition of the sun’s atmosphere. Astrophys J 70: 11–82ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Saha MN (1920) Ionization in the solar chromosphere. Phil Mag 40:472–488Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schmelz JT et al (2012) Composition of the solar corona, solar wind, and solar energetic particles. Astron J 755:33 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    St. John CE, Babcock HD (1924) Pressure and circulation in the reversing-layer of the sun’s atmosphere. Astrophys J 60:32–42Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Serenelli A (2016) Alive and well: a short review about standard solar models. ArXiv:1601.07179 v1[astro-ph.SR]Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sobel D (2016) The glass universe. Fourth Estate, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Turcotte S, Christensen-Dalsgaard J (1998) The effect of differential settling and the revised abundances on solar oscillation frequencies. ESA SP-418, Boston, 561–565Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vauclair S (2003) Diffusion and mixing inl main-sequence stars. Astrophys Space Sci 284:205–215Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vita-Finzi C (2016) The contribution of the Joule-Thomson effect to solar coronal heating. ArXiv:1612.07943Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Von Steiger R et al (2001) Measuring solar abundances. In Wimmer-Schweingruber RF (ed) Solar and galactic composition. AIP Conf Proc 598, Melville, NY, USA, 13–22Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wayman PA (2002) Cecilia Payne-Gaposhkin: astronomer extraordinaire. Astron Geophys 43:1.27–1.29CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesNatural History MuseumLondonUK

Personalised recommendations