Five Forms of Shadow Education Practices

  • Young Chun KimEmail author
  • Jung-Hoon Jung
Part of the Curriculum Studies Worldwide book series (CSWW)


This chapter explores in greater detail the various forms of shadow education that exist in many countries. Categorizing them into five forms, the authors discuss each form’s characteristics in terms of their purpose, popularity in different countries, and strengths and weakness. Drawing from qualitative data collected during their own fieldwork in South Korea, the authors provide narratives about shadow education from students, parents, and shadow educators, as well as examples of each form from ‘real-world’ practice settings. The discussion covers the practical value of each form for student learning and also delves into the influence of each form on the public education systems and social norms around education in various countries. The authors also provide their insights about how the forms of shadow education might change over time.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chinju National University of EducationJinjuKorea (Republic of)
  2. 2.Chonnam National UniversityGwangjuKorea (Republic of)

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