• Leslie J. Waguespack


In the earliest documented attempt to articulate design quality, circa 30–20 BC, Vitruvius believed that an architect should focus on three central themes in preparing a design for the construction of a building: firmitas (strength), utilitas (functionality), and venustas (beauty). ANSI-ISO 9001:2015 approaches that quality from a process perspective that delineates quality management principles: customer focus, leadership, engagement of people, process approach, improvement, evidence-based decision making, and relationship management. Although separated by two millennia, both focus attention on the encounter between human and artefact to define design quality – the affect of the artefact’s agency on their behalf. That agency encompasses beliefs, moods, feelings, and attitudes. John Heskett may have offered the most expansive, yet concise, characterization of that agency of design.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leslie J. Waguespack
    • 1
  1. 1.Computer Information SystemsBentley UniversityWalthamUSA

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