Advertisement

Non-neurologic Late Effects of Therapy

  • Sue C. KasteEmail author
  • Anurag Arora
Chapter
Part of the Pediatric Oncology book series (PEDIATRICO)

Abstract

With the overall 5-year survival of patients diagnosed with cancer during childhood and adolescence now exceeding 80%, these survivors represent a rapidly growing population who may be burdened with adverse late toxicities and chronic disease. The chapter is organized by organ systems involved and addresses many of the more common adverse non-neurologic treatment-related late effects. The mechanisms of and risk factors for their development and imaging methods for their detection are discussed.

Keywords

Survivors of childhood cancer Late effects of cancer therapy Pediatric oncology Oncologic toxicities Chemotherapy Radiation therapy 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Vella Laws-Bell for manuscript preparation and to Cynthia Lyle for critical review.

References

  1. 1.
    Robison LL, Hudson MM. Survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: life-long risks and responsibilities. Nat Rev Cancer. 2014;14:61–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mariotto AB, Rowland JH, Yabroff KR, Scoppa S, Hachey M, Ries L, Feuer EJ. Long-term survivors of childhood cancers in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:1033–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Armstrong GT, Plana JC, Zhang N, Srivastava D, Green DM, Ness KK, Daniel Donovan F, Metzger ML, Arevalo A, Durand JB, Joshi V, Hudson MM, Robison LL, Flamm SD. Screening adult survivors of childhood cancer for cardiomyopathy: comparison of echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:2876–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Oeffinger KC, Mertens AC, Sklar CA, Kawashima T, Hudson MM, Meadows AT, Friedman DL, Marina N, Hobbie W, Kadan-Lottick NS, Schwartz CL, Leisenring W, Robison LL, Childhood Cancer Survivor S. Chronic health conditions in adult survivors of childhood cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:1572–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) Version 5.0. Published: Nov 27, 2017. https://ctep.cancer.gov/protocoldevelopment/electronic_applications/docs/CTCAE_v5_Quick_Reference_5x7.pdf.
  6. 6.
    Bakta N, Liu Q, NEss KK, Baassiri M, Eissa H, Yeo F, Chematilly W, Ehrhardt MJ, Bass J, Bishop MW, Shelton K, Lu L, Huang S, Li Z, et al. The cumulative burden of surviving childhood cancer: an initial report from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE). Lancet 2017; 390(10112):2569–2582.  https://doi.org/10.1016/SO140-6736(17)31610-0. Epub 2017 Sep 8. PMID:28890157.
  7. 7.
    Lind MJ. Principles of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Medicine. 2008;36:19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yarnold J, Brotons MC. Pathogenetic mechanisms in radiation fibrosis. Radiother Oncol. 2010;97:149–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hojan K, Milecki P. Opportunities for rehabilitation of patients with radiation fibrosis syndrome. Rep Pract Oncol Radiother. 2014;19:1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tsoutsou PG, Koukourakis MI. Radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis: mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis and implications for future research. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;66:1281–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rajan Radha R, Chandrasekharan G. Pulmonary injury associated with radiation therapy - assessment, complications and therapeutic targets. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;89:1092–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gawade PL, Hudson MM, Kaste SC, Neglia JP, Constine LS, Robison LL, Ness KK. A systematic review of dental late effects in survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61:407–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    COG. Long-term follow-up guidelines for survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers, v.4.0. http://www.survivorshipguidelines.org [Online]. Children’s Oncology Group. 2014. Available: http://www.survivorshipguidelines.org/pdf/LTFUGuidelines_40. Accessed 24 Aug 2017.
  14. 14.
    Carroll WL, Raetz E, Meyer J. State of the art discovery with tumor profiling in pediatric oncology. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2015:e601–7.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Glade Bender J, Verma A, Schiffman JD. Translating genomic discoveries to the clinic in pediatric oncology. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2015;27:34–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Biermann M, Schwarzlmuller T, Fasmer KE, Reitan BC, Johnsen B, Rosendahl K. Is there a role for PET-CT and Spect-CT in pediatric oncology? Acta Radiol. 2013;54:1037–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sonis AL, Tarbell N, Valachovic RW, Gelber R, Schwenn M, Sallan S. Dentofacial development in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A comparison of three treatment modalities. Cancer. 1990;66:2645–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gevorgyan A, La Scala GC, Neligan PC, Pang CY, Forrest CR. Radiation-induced craniofacial bone growth disturbances. J Craniofac Surg. 2007;18:1001–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jegoux F, Malard O, Goyenvalle E, Aguado E, Daculsi G. Radiation effects on bone healing and reconstruction: interpretation of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:173–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vesterbacka M, Ringden O, Remberger M, Huggare J, Dahllof G. Disturbances in dental development and craniofacial growth in children treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2012;15:21–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Paulino AC, Simon JH, Zhen W, Wen BC. Long-term effects in children treated with radiotherapy for head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;48:1489–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Denys D, Kaste SC, Kun LE, Chaudhary MA, Bowman LC, Robbins KT. The effects of radiation on craniofacial skeletal growth: a quantitative study. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1998;45:7–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ash MM, Nelson SJ. Wheeler’s dental anatomy, physiology and occlusion. St. Louis, MO: W.B. Saunders Company; 2002.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nwoku AL, Koch H. Effect of radiation injury on the growing face. J Maxillofac Surg. 1975;3:28–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jaffe N, Toth BB, Hoar RE, Ried HL, Sullivan MP, McNeese MD. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: effects of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation to the head and neck. Pediatrics. 1984;73:816–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kaste SC, Goodman P, Leisenring W, Stovall M, Hayashi RJ, Yeazel M, Beiraghi S, Hudson MM, Sklar CA, Robison LL, Baker KS. Impact of radiation and chemotherapy on risk of dental abnormalities: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer. 2009;115:5817–27.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zarina RS, Nik-Hussein NN. Dental abnormalities of a long-term survivor of a childhood hematological malignancy: literature review and report of a case. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2005;29:167–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dahllof G, Jonsson A, Ulmner M, Huggare J. Orthodontic treatment in long-term survivors after pediatric bone marrow transplantation. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001;120:459–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Neill CC, Migliorati C, Trojan T, Kaste S, Karydis A, Rowland C, Parris W. Experience and expertise regarding orthodontic management of childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2015;148:765–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kaste SC, Hopkins KP, Jenkins JJ 3rd. Abnormal odontogenesis in children treated with radiation and chemotherapy: imaging findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994;162:1407–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dahllof G, Barr M, Bolme P, Modeer T, Lonnqvist B, Ringden O, Heimdahl A. Disturbances in dental development after total body irradiation in bone marrow transplant recipients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1988;65:41–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Martin MB, Li CS, Rowland CC, Howard SC, Kaste SC. Correlation of bone age, dental age, and chronological age in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2008;18:217–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vaughan MD, Rowland CC, Tong X, Srivastava DK, Hale GA, Rochester R, Kaste SC. Dental abnormalities after pediatric bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005;36:725–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tanaka M, Kamata T, Yanagisawa R, Morita D, Saito S, Sakashita K, Shiohara M, Kurita H, Koike K, Nakazawa Y. Increasing risk of disturbed root development in permanent teeth in childhood cancer survivors undergoing cancer treatment at older age. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2017;39:e150–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vaughan MD, Rowland CC, Tong X, Srivastava DK, Hale GA, Rochester R, Kaste SC. Dental abnormalities in children preparing for pediatric bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005;36:863–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hudson MM, Oeffinger K. Future health of survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer. In: Schwartz CL, Hobbie W, Constine LS, Ruccione KS, editors. Survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer; a multidisciplinary approach. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2005.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gawade PL, Hudson MM, Kaste SC, Neglia JP, Wasilewski-Masker K, Constine LS, Robison LL, Ness KK. A systematic review of selected musculoskeletal late effects in survivors of childhood cancer. Curr Pediatr Rev. 2014;10:249–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    McVay CS, Klei TR, Coleman SU, Bosshardt SC. A comparison of host responses of the Mongolian jird to infections of Brugia malayi and B. pahangi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990;43:266–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhang J, Wang Z, Wu A, Nie J, Pei H, Hu W, Wang B, Shang P, Li B, Zhou G. Differences in responses to X-ray exposure between osteoclast and osteoblast cells. J Radiat Res. 2017;58:791–802.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mackenzie JR. Complications of treatment of paediatric malignancies. Eur J Radiol. 2001;37:109–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shalet SM, Crowne EC, Didi MA, Ogilvy-Stuart AL, Wallace WH. Irradiation-induced growth failure. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992;6:513–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shalet SM, Gibson B, Swindell R, Pearson D. Effect of spinal irradiation on growth. Arch Dis Child. 1987;62:461–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Clayton PE, Shalet SM. The evolution of spinal growth after irradiation. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 1991;3:220–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Parisi MT, Fahmy JL, Kaminsky CK, Malogolowkin MH. Complications of cancer therapy in children: a radiologist’s guide. Radiographics. 1999;19:283–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Siebler T, Shalet SM, Robson H. Effects of chemotherapy on bone metabolism and skeletal growth. Horm Res. 2002;58(Suppl 1):80–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    D’Oronzo S, Stucci S, Tucci M, Silvestris F. Cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL): pathogenesis and clinical implications. Cancer Treat Rev. 2015;41:798–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wasilewski-Masker K, Kaste SC, Hudson MM, Esiashvili N, Mattano LA, Meacham LR. Bone mineral density deficits in survivors of childhood cancer: long-term follow-up guidelines and review of the literature. Pediatrics. 2008;121:e705–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mori G, D’Amelio P, Faccio R, Brunetti G. Bone-immune cell crosstalk: bone diseases. J Immunol Res. 2015;2015:108451.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pfeilschifter J, Diel IJ. Osteoporosis due to cancer treatment: pathogenesis and management. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:1570–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rana T, Chakrabarti A, Freeman M, Biswas S. Doxorubicin-mediated bone loss in breast cancer bone metastases is driven by an interplay between oxidative stress and induction of TGFbeta. PLoS One. 2013;8:e78043.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mandel K, Atkinson S, Barr RD, Pencharz P. Skeletal morbidity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:1215–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Den Hoed MA, Klap BC, Te Winkel ML, Pieters R, Van Waas M, Neggers SJ, Boot AM, Blijdorp K, Van Dorp W, Pluijm SM, Van Den Heuvel-Eibrink MM. Bone mineral density after childhood cancer in 346 long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer. Osteoporos Int. 2015;26:521–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Siegel DA, Claridy M, Mertens A, George E, Vangile K, Simoneaux SF, Meacham LR, Wasilewski-Masker K. Risk factors and surveillance for reduced bone mineral density in pediatric cancer survivors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;64(9)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Porosnicu M, Nimmanapalli R, Nguyen D, Worthington E, Perkins C, Bhalla KN. Co-treatment with As2O3 enhances selective cytotoxic effects of STI-571 against Brc-Abl-positive acute leukemia cells. Leukemia. 2001;15:772–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gurney JG, Kaste SC, Liu W, Srivastava DK, Chemaitilly W, Ness KK, Lanctot JQ, Ojha RP, Nottage KA, Wilson CL, Li Z, Robison LL, Hudson MM. Bone mineral density among long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61:1270–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ippolito D, Masetto A, Franzesi CT, Bonaffini PA, Sala A, Biondi A, Sironi S. Lower-limb MRI in the staging and re-staging of osteonecrosis in paediatric patients affected by acute lymphoblastic leukaemia after therapy. Skeletal Radiol. 2016;45:495–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sharma S, Leung WH, Deqing P, Yang J, Rochester R, Britton L, Neel MD, Ness KK, Kaste SC. Osteonecrosis in children after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: study of prevalence, risk factors and longitudinal changes using MR imaging. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2012;47:1067–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sharma S, Yang S, Rochester R, Britton L, Leung WH, Yang J, Neel MD, Ness KK, Kaste SC. Prevalence of osteonecrosis and associated risk factors in children before allogeneic BMT. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2011;46:813–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kadan-Lottick NS, Dinu I, Wasilewski-Masker K, Kaste S, Meacham LR, Mahajan A, Stovall M, Yasui Y, Robison LL, Sklar CA. Osteonecrosis in adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:3038–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kunstreich M, Kummer S, Laws HJ, Borkhardt A, Kuhlen M. Osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Haematologica. 2016;101:1295–305.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kaste SC, Karimova EJ, Neel MD. Osteonecrosis in children after therapy for malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;196:1011–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fan C, Foster BK, Wallace WH, Xian CJ. Pathobiology and prevention of cancer chemotherapy-induced bone growth arrest, bone loss, and osteonecrosis. Curr Mol Med. 2011;11:140–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Diller L. Clinical practice. Adult primary care after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:1417–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kaste SC, Pei D, Cheng C, Neel MD, Bowman WP, Ribeiro RC, Metzger ML, Bhojwani D, Inaba H, Campbell P, Rubnitz JE, Jeha S, Sandlund JT, Downing JR, Relling MV, Pui CH, Howard SC. Utility of early screening magnetic resonance imaging for extensive hip osteonecrosis in pediatric patients treated with glucocorticoids. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33:610–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Girard P, Auquier P, Barlogis V, Contet A, Poiree M, Demeocq F, Berbis J, Herrmann I, Villes V, Sirvent N, Kanold J, Chastagner P, Chambost H, Plantaz D, Michel G. Symptomatic osteonecrosis in childhood leukemia survivors: prevalence, risk factors and impact on quality of life in adulthood. Haematologica. 2013;98:1089–97.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Relling MV, Yang W, Das S, Cook EH, Rosner GL, Neel M, Howard S, Ribeiro R, Sandlund JT, Pui CH, Kaste SC. Pharmacogenetic risk factors for osteonecrosis of the hip among children with leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:3930–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Burger B, Beier R, Zimmermann M, Beck JD, Reiter A, Schrappe M. Osteonecrosis: a treatment related toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)--experiences from trial ALL-BFM 95. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2005;44:220–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Karimova EJ, Kaste SC. MR imaging of osteonecrosis of the knee in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Pediatr Radiol. 2007;37:1140–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Karimova EJ, Rai SN, Howard SC, Neel M, Britton L, Pui CH, Kaste SC. Femoral head osteonecrosis in pediatric and young adult patients with leukemia or lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:1525–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kaste SC, Defeo BM, Neel MD, Weiss KS, Fernandez-Pineda I, Ness KK. Osteonecrosis of the shoulders in pediatric patients treated for leukemia or lymphoma: single-institutional experience. J Pediatr Orthop. 2017;Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chollet CT, Britton L, Neel MD, Hudson MM, Kaste SC. Childhood cancer survivors: an at-risk cohort for ankle osteonecrosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005;(430):149–55.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Karimova EJ, Rai SN, Ingle D, Ralph AC, Deng X, Neel MD, Howard SC, Pui CH, Kaste SC. MRI of knee osteonecrosis in children with leukemia and lymphoma: Part 2, clinical and imaging patterns. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186:477–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Te Winkel ML, Pieters R, Wind EJ, Bessems JH, Van Den Heuvel-Eibrink MM. Management and treatment of osteonecrosis in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Haematologica. 2014;99:430–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Interiano RB, Kaste SC, Li C, Srivastava DK, Rao BN, Warner WC Jr, Green DM, Krasin MJ, Robison LL, Davidoff AM, Hudson MM, Fernandez-Pineda I, Ness KK. Associations between treatment, scoliosis, pulmonary function, and physical performance in long-term survivors of sarcoma. J Cancer Surviv. 2017;11:553.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lucas JT Jr, Fernandez-Pineda I, Tinkle CL, Bishop MW, Kaste SC, Heda R, Davidoff AM, Krasin MJ. Late toxicity and outcomes following radiation therapy for chest wall sarcomas in pediatric patients. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2017;7:411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fidler MM, Reulen RC, Henson K, Kelly J, Cutter D, Levitt GA, Frobisher C, Winter DL, Hawkins MM, British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Steering, G. Population-based long-term cardiac-specific mortality among 34 489 five-year survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain. Circulation. 2017;135:951–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mulrooney DA, Armstrong GT, Huang S, Ness KK, Ehrhardt MJ, Joshi VM, Plana JC, Soliman EZ, Green DM, Srivastava D, Santucci A, Krasin MJ, Robison LL, Hudson MM. Cardiac outcomes in adult survivors of childhood cancer exposed to cardiotoxic therapy: a cross-sectional study. Ann Intern Med. 2016;164:93–101.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lipshultz SE, Adams MJ, Colan SD, Constine LS, Herman EH, Hsu DT, Hudson MM, Kremer LC, Landy DC, Miller TL, Oeffinger KC, Rosenthal DN, Sable CA, Sallan SE, Singh GK, Steinberger J, Cochran TR, Wilkinson JD, American Heart Association Congenital Heart Defects Committee of The Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, C. O. B. C. S. C. O. C. & Stroke Nursing, C. O. C. R. Long-term cardiovascular toxicity in children, adolescents, and young adults who receive cancer therapy: pathophysiology, course, monitoring, management, prevention, and research directions: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2013;128:1927–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lipshultz SE, Cochran TR, Franco VI, Miller TL. Treatment-related cardiotoxicity in survivors of childhood cancer. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2013;10:697–710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Spichev VP. A comprehensive assessment of the medical and prophylactic support for the troops of a military district and the ways to enhance its efficiency. Voen Med Zh. 1990; 34–7.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kremer LC, Van Dalen EC, Offringa M, Ottenkamp J, Voute PA. Anthracycline-induced clinical heart failure in a cohort of 607 children: long-term follow-up study. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:191–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Maeda M. Late effects of childhood cancer: life-threatening issues. J Nippon Med Sch. 2008;75:320–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Armenian SH, Hudson MM, Mulder RL, Chen MH, Constine LS, Dwyer M, Nathan PC, Tissing WJ, Shankar S, Sieswerda E, Skinner R, Steinberger J, Van Dalen EC, Van Der Pal H, Wallace WH, Levitt G, Kremer LC, International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization, G. Recommendations for cardiomyopathy surveillance for survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16:e123–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Armstrong GT, Stovall M, Robison LL. Long-term effects of radiation exposure among adult survivors of childhood cancer: results from the childhood cancer survivor study. Radiat Res. 2010;174:840–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kupeli S, Hazirolan T, Varan A, Akata D, Alehan D, Hayran M, Besim A, Buyukpamukcu M. Evaluation of coronary artery disease by computed tomography angiography in patients treated for childhood Hodgkin’s lymphoma. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:1025–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Liles A, Blatt J, Morris D, Wardrop R III, Sharma A, Sznewajs A, Goldsby R, Children’s Oncology G. Monitoring pulmonary complications in long-term childhood cancer survivors: guidelines for the primary care physician. Cleve Clin J Med. 2008;75:531–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mertens AC, Yasui Y, Liu Y, Stovall M, Hutchinson R, Ginsberg J, Sklar C, Robison LL, Childhood Cancer Survivor S. Pulmonary complications in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer. 2002;95:2431–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Friedman DL, Constine LS. Late effects of cancer treatment. In: Halperin EC, Constine LS, Tarbell NJ, Kun LE, editors. Pediatric radiation oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rubin P, Casarett GW. Clinical radiation pathology. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders; 1968.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cardous-Ubbink MC, Heinen RC, Langeveld NE, Bakker PJ, Voute PA, Caron HN, Van Leeuwen FE. Long-term cause-specific mortality among five-year survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2004;42:563–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bhatia S, Sklar C. Second cancers in survivors of childhood cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002;2:124–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Taylor GI, Doyle M, McCarten G. The Doppler probe for planning flaps: anatomical study and clinical applications. Br J Plast Surg. 1990;43:1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Shelmerdine SC, Chavhan GB, Babyn PS, Nathan PC, Kaste SC. Imaging of late complications of cancer therapy in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2017;47:254–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Asdahl PH, Winther JF, Bonnesen TG, De Fine Licht S, Gudmundsdottir T, Holmqvist AS, Malila N, Tryggvadottir L, Wesenberg F, Dahlerup JF, Olsen JH, Hasle H, Group, A. L. S. Gastrointestinal and liver disease in adult life after childhood cancer in Scandinavia: a population-based cohort study. Int J Cancer. 2016;139:1501–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Goldsby R, Chen Y, Raber S, Li L, Diefenbach K, Shnorhavorian M, Kadan-Lottick N, Kastrinos F, Yasui Y, Stovall M, Oeffinger K, Sklar C, Armstrong GT, Robison LL, Diller L. Survivors of childhood cancer have increased risk of gastrointestinal complications later in life. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:1464–71.e1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Macnaughton WK. Review article: new insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced intestinal dysfunction. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000;14:523–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Friedman DL, Constine LS. Late effects of cancer treatment. In: Halperin EC, Constine LS, Tarbell NJ, Kun LE, editors. Pediatric radiation oncology. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Touchefeu Y, Montassier E, Nieman K, Gastinne T, Potel G, Bruley Des Varannes S, Le Vacon F, De La Cochetiere MF. Systematic review: the role of the gut microbiota in chemotherapy- or radiation-induced gastrointestinal mucositis - current evidence and potential clinical applications. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014;40:409–21.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sher ME, Bauer J. Radiation-induced enteropathy. Am J Gastroenterol. 1990;85:121–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Theis VS, Sripadam R, Ramani V, Lal S. Chronic radiation enteritis. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2010;22:70–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Harb AH, Abou Fadel C, Sharara AI. Radiation enteritis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2014;16:383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kennedy GD, Heise CP. Radiation colitis and proctitis. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2007;20:64–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Griffiths JB, Cameron DR, Looby D. A comparison of unit process systems for anchorage dependent cells. Dev Biol Stand. 1987;66:331–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Decosse JJ, Rhodes RS, Wentz WB, Reagan JW, Dworken HJ, Holden WD. The natural history and management of radiation induced injury of the gastrointestinal tract. Ann Surg. 1969;170:369–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Libotte F, Autier P, Delmelle M, Gozy M, Pector JC, Van Houtte P, Gerard A. Survival of patients with radiation enteritis of the small and the large intestine. Acta Chir Belg. 1995;95:190–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kountouras J, Zavos C. Recent advances in the management of radiation colitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:7289–301.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Maturen KE, Feng MU, Wasnik AP, Azar SF, Appelman HD, Francis IR, Platt JF. Imaging effects of radiation therapy in the abdomen and pelvis: evaluating “innocent bystander” tissues. Radiographics. 2013;33:599–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lal DR, Foroutan HR, Su WT, Wolden SL, Boulad F, La Quaglia MP. The management of treatment-related esophageal complications in children and adolescents with cancer. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:495–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Donaldson SS, Jundt S, Ricour C, Sarrazin D, Lemerle J, Schweisguth O. Radiation enteritis in children. A retrospective review, clinicopathologic correlation, and dietary management. Cancer. 1975;35:1167–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Madenci AL, Fisher S, Diller LR, Goldsby RE, Leisenring WM, Oeffinger KC, Robison LL, Sklar CA, Stovall M, Weathers RE, Armstrong GT, Yasui Y, Weldon CB. Intestinal obstruction in survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33:2893–900.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Algin O, Turkbey B, Ozmen E, Algin E. Magnetic resonance enterography findings of chronic radiation enteritis. Cancer Imaging. 2011;11:189–94.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Khoury NJ, Kanj V, Abboud M, Muwakkit S, Birjawi GA, Haddad MC. Abdominal complications of chemotherapy in pediatric malignancies: imaging findings. Clin Imaging. 2009;33:253–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Horton KM, Corl FM, Fishman EK. CT evaluation of the colon: inflammatory disease. Radiographics. 2000;20:399–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Haddad MC, Khouzami RA, Saad HA, Azzi MC. Imaging findings of radiation enteritis. J Med Liban. 2004;52:55–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Den Hartog Jager FC, Cohen P, Van Haastert M. Late radiation injury of the rectum and sigmoid colon: barium enema findings in 92 patients. Br J Radiol. 1989;62:807–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Cronin CG, Lohan DG, Browne AM, Roche C, O’Keeffe D, Murphy JM. MR small-bowel follow-through for investigation of suspected pediatric small-bowel pathology. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;192:1239–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Castellino S, Muir A, Shah A, Shope S, McMullen K, Ruble K, Barber A, Davidoff A, Hudson MM. Hepato-biliary late effects in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010;54:663–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ingold JA, Reed GB, Kaplan HS, Bagshaw MA. Radiation Hepatitis. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 1965;93:200–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Fellows KEJ, Vawter GF, Tefft M. Hepatic effects following abdominal irradiation in children: detection by Au198 scan and confirmation by histologic examination. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 1968;103:422–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Tefft M, Mitus A, Das L, Vawter GF, Filler RM. Irradiation of the liver in children: review of experience in the acute and chronic phases, and in the intact normal and partially resected. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 1970;108:365–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kun LE, Camitta BM. Hepatopathy following irradiation and adriamycin. Cancer. 1978;42:81–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Masetti R, Colecchia A, Rondelli R, Martoni A, Vendemini F, Biagi C, Prete A, Festi D, Lima M, Pession A. Benign hepatic nodular lesions after treatment for childhood cancer. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;56:151–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Bouyn CI, Leclere J, Raimondo G, Le Pointe HD, Couanet D, Valteau-Couanet D, Hartmann O. Hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia in children previously treated for a solid tumor. Incidence, risk factors, and outcome. Cancer. 2003;97:3107–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Chavhan GB, Mann E, Kamath BM, Babyn PS. Gadobenate-dimeglumine-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for hepatic lesions in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2014;44:1266–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Pillon M, Carucci NS, Mainardi C, Carraro E, Zuliani M, Chemello L, Calore E, Tumino M, Varotto S, Toffolutti T, Destro R, Gazzola MV, Alaggio R, Basso G, Messina C. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: an emerging complication of hematopoietic SCT in children. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2015;50:414–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kumagai H, Masuda T, Oikawa H, Endo K, Endo M, Takano T. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: direct evidence of circulatory disturbances. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000;15:1344–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Burgio MD, Ronot M, Salvaggio G, Vilgrain V, Brancatelli G. Imaging of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia: pictorial review and diagnostic strategy. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2016;37:511–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ronot M, Vilgrain V. Imaging of benign hepatocellular lesions: current concepts and recent updates. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2014;38:681–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Bertin C, Egels S, Wagner M, Huynh-Charlier I, Vilgrain V, Lucidarme O. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of focal nodular hyperplasia: a matter of size. Eur Radiol. 2014;24:2561–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    D’Onofrio M, Crosara S, De Robertis R, Canestrini S, Mucelli RP. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of focal liver lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015;205:W56–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Chiorean L, Cui XW, Tannapfel A, Franke D, Stenzel M, Kosiak W, Schreiber-Dietrich D, Jungert J, Chang JM, Dietrich CF. Benign liver tumors in pediatric patients - review with emphasis on imaging features. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21:8541–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Mohajer K, Frydrychowicz A, Robbins JB, Loeffler AG, Reed TD, Reeder SB. Characterization of hepatic adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia with gadoxetic acid. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2012;36:686–96.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Huppertz A, Haraida S, Kraus A, Zech CJ, Scheidler J, Breuer J, Helmberger TK, Reiser MF. Enhancement of focal liver lesions at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging: correlation with histopathologic findings and spiral CT--initial observations. Radiology. 2005;234:468–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Trovillion EM, Schubert L, Dietz AC. Iron overload in survivors of childhood cancer. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2018;40:396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Schempp A, Lee J, Kearney S, Mulrooney DA, Smith AR. Iron overload in survivors of childhood cancer. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2016;38:27–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Chotsampancharoen T, Gan K, Kasow KA, Barfield RC, Hale GA, Leung W. Iron overload in survivors of childhood leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pediatr Transplant. 2009;13:348–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Halonen P, Mattila J, Suominen P, Ruuska T, Salo MK, Makipernaa A. Iron overload in children who are treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia estimated by liver siderosis and serum iron parameters. Pediatrics. 2003;111:91–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Halonen P, Mattila J, Ruuska T, Salo MK, Makipernaa A. Liver histology after current intensified therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: microvesicular fatty change and siderosis are the main findings. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2003;40:148–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    McCarville MB, Hillenbrand CM, Loeffler RB, Smeltzer MP, Song R, Li CS, Hankins JS. Comparison of whole liver and small region-of-interest measurements of MRI liver R2* in children with iron overload. Pediatr Radiol. 2010;40:1360–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hankins JS, McCarville MB, Loeffler RB, Smeltzer MP, Onciu M, Hoffer FA, Li CS, Wang WC, Ware RE, Hillenbrand CM. R2* magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in patients with iron overload. Blood. 2009;113:4853–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Vag T, Kentouche K, Krumbein I, Reichenbach JR, Lopatta E, Renz DM, Stenzel M, Beck J, Kaiser WA, Mentzel HJ. Noninvasive measurement of liver iron concentration at MRI in children with acute leukemia: initial results. Pediatr Radiol. 2011;41:980–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Nobili V, Alisi A, De Ville De Goyet J. Metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis recurrence after liver transplantation in children. Liver Transpl. 2011;17:620–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Karanjia RN, Crossey MM, Cox IJ, Fye HK, Njie R, Goldin RD, Taylor-Robinson SD. Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis: non-invasive assessment. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:9880–97.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Assimos DG. Re: four of the most common mutations in primary hyperoxaluria type 1 unmask the cryptic mitochondrial targeting sequence of alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase encoded by the polymorphic minor allele. J Urol. 2013;189:1769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lazo M, Hernaez R, Bonekamp S, Kamel IR, Brancati FL, Guallar E, Clark JM. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and mortality among US adults: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2011;343:d6891.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Costa AF, Tremblay St-Germain A, Abdolell M, Smoot RL, Cleary S, Jhaveri KS. Can contrast-enhanced MRI with gadoxetic acid predict liver failure and other complications after major hepatic resection? Clin Radiol. 2017;72:598–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Joshi M, Dillman JR, Towbin AJ, Serai SD, Trout AT. MR elastography: high rate of technical success in pediatric and young adult patients. Pediatr Radiol. 2017;47:838–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Joshi M, Dillman JR, Singh K, Serai SD, Towbin AJ, Xanthakos S, Zhang B, Su W, Trout AT. Quantitative MRI of fatty liver disease in a large pediatric cohort: correlation between liver fat fraction, stiffness, volume, and patient-specific factors. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2018;43:1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Xanthakos SA, Podberesky DJ, Serai SD, Miles L, King EC, Balistreri WF, Kohli R. Use of magnetic resonance elastography to assess hepatic fibrosis in children with chronic liver disease. J Pediatr. 2014;164:186–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Litwiller DV, Mariappan YK, Ehman RL. Magnetic resonance elastography. Curr Med Imaging Rev. 2012;8:46–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Addley HC, Vargas HA, Moyle PL, Crawford R, Sala E. Pelvic imaging following chemotherapy and radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies. Radiographics. 2010;30:1843–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Loebstein R, Atanackovic G, Bishai R, Wolpin J, Khattak S, Hashemi G, Gobrial M, Baruchel S, Ito S, Koren G. Risk factors for long-term outcome of ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity in children. J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;39:454–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Neu MA, Russo A, Wingerter A, Alt F, Theruvath J, El Malki K, Kron B, Dittrich M, Lotz J, Stein R, Beetz R, Faber J. Prospective analysis of long-term renal function in survivors of childhood Wilms tumor. Pediatr Nephrol. 2017;32:1915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Millar AJW, Cox S, Davidson A. Management of bilateral Wilms tumours. Pediatr Surg Int. 2017;33:737–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Patel HD, Pierorazio PM, Johnson MH, Sharma R, Iyoha E, Allaf ME, Bass EB, Sozio SM. Renal functional outcomes after surgery, ablation, and active surveillance of localized renal tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;12:1057–69.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Dickerson EC, Dillman JR, Smith EA, Dipietro MA, Lebowitz RL, Darge K. Pediatric MR urography: indications, techniques, and approach to review. Radiographics. 2015;35:1208–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Wong-You-Cheong JJ, Woodward PJ, Manning MA, Davis CJ. From the archives of the Afip: inflammatory and nonneoplastic bladder masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2006;26:1847–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Kaste SC, Gronemeyer SA, Muram D. Vaginal occlusion induced by cancer therapy. Pediatr Radiol. 1993;23:369–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Muram D, CL G. Acquired vaginal occlusion. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 1990;3:141–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Leyendecker JR, Barnes CE, Zagoria RJ. MR urography: techniques and clinical applications. Radiographics. 2008;28:23–46. discussion 46–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Sklar C, Whitton J, Mertens A, Stovall M, Green D, Marina N, Greffe B, Wolden S, Robison L. Abnormalities of the thyroid in survivors of Hodgkin’s disease: data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:3227–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Van Dorp W, Van Beek RD, Laven JS, Pieters R, De Muinck Keizer-Schrama SM, Van Den Heuvel-Eibrink MM. Long-term endocrine side effects of childhood Hodgkin’s lymphoma treatment: a review. Hum Reprod Update. 2012;18:12–28.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hancock SL, Cox RS, McDougall IR. Thyroid diseases after treatment of Hodgkin’s disease. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:599–605.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Crom DB, Kaste SC, Tubergen DG, Greenwald CA, Sharp GB, Hudson MM. Ultrasonography for thyroid screening after head and neck irradiation in childhood cancer survivors. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1997;28:15–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Soberman N, Leonidas JC, Cherrick I, Schiff R, Karayalcin G. Sonographic abnormalities of the thyroid gland in longterm survivors of Hodgkin disease. Pediatr Radiol. 1991;21:250–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Hoang JK, Lee WK, Lee M, Johnson D, Farrell S. US Features of thyroid malignancy: pearls and pitfalls. Radiographics. 2007;27:847–60. discussion 861–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Bhakta N, Liu Q, Ness KK, Baassiri M, Eissa H, Yeo F, Chemaitilly W, Ehrhardt MJ, Bass J, Bishop MW, Shelton K, Lu L, Huang S, Li Z, Caron E, Lanctot J, Howell C, Folse T, Joshi V, Green DM, Mulrooney DA, Armstrong GT, Krull KR, Brinkman TM, Khan RB, Srivastava DK, Hudson MM, Yasui Y, Robison LL. The cumulative burden of surviving childhood cancer: an initial report from the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE). Lancet. 2017;390:2569.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Friedman DL, Whitton J, Leisenring W, Mertens AC, Hammond S, Stovall M, Donaldson SS, Meadows AT, Robison LL, Neglia JP. Subsequent neoplasms in 5-year survivors of childhood cancer: the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102:1083–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Turcotte LM, Liu Q, Yasui Y, Arnold MA, Hammond S, Howell RM, Smith SA, Weathers RE, Henderson TO, Gibson TM, Leisenring W, Armstrong GT, Robison LL, Neglia JP. Temporal trends in treatment and subsequent neoplasm risk among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer, 1970-2015. JAMA. 2017;317:814–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Neglia JP, Friedman DL, Yasui Y, Mertens AC, Hammond S, Stovall M, Donaldson SS, Meadows AT, Robison LL. Second malignant neoplasms in five-year survivors of childhood cancer: childhood cancer survivor study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93:618–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Bhatia S, Yasui Y, Robison LL, Birch JM, Bogue MK, Diller L, Delaat C, Fossati-Bellani F, Morgan E, Oberlin O, Reaman G, Ruymann FB, Tersak J, Meadows AT, Late Effects Study G. High risk of subsequent neoplasms continues with extended follow-up of childhood Hodgkin’s disease: report from the Late Effects Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:4386–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Metayer C, Lynch CF, Clarke EA, Glimelius B, Storm H, Pukkala E, Joensuu T, Van Leeuwen FE, Van’t Veer MB, Curtis RE, Holowaty EJ, Andersson M, Wiklund T, Gospodarowicz M, Travis LB. Second cancers among long-term survivors of Hodgkin’s disease diagnosed in childhood and adolescence. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:2435–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Villani A, Tabori U, Schiffman J, Shlien A, Beyene J, Druker H, Novokmet A, Finlay J, Malkin D. Biochemical and imaging surveillance in germline TP53 mutation carriers with Li-Fraumeni syndrome: a prospective observational study. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12:559–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Marina N. Long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The medical consequences of cure. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1997;44:1021–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Pacheco R, Stock H. Effects of radiation on bone. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2013;11:299–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Murphey MD, Choi JJ, Kransdorf MJ, Flemming DJ, Gannon FH. Imaging of osteochondroma: variants and complications with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2000;20:1407–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Paulino AC. Late effects of radiotherapy for pediatric extremity sarcomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;60:265–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OncologySt. Jude Children’s Research HospitalMemphisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Diagnostic ImagingSt. Jude Children’s Research HospitalMemphisUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Tennessee Health Science CenterMemphisUSA

Personalised recommendations