Advertisement

Power and Silence: The Social Construction of Gypsies and Travellers

  • Geetha Marcus
Chapter
Part of the Studies in Childhood and Youth book series (SCY)

Abstract

Marcus sets out arguments to demonstrate Gypsies and Travellers are ignored, erased or demonised as a key ‘Other’ in the European imagination. Gypsies and Travellers are simultaneously absent, in terms of their views and experiences, and present, in terms of serving as the disparaged Other in the Scottish, and European, mindset. From the manipulation of the history and identity of ‘the Gypsy and Traveller’ in Scottish culture, the lacuna in the existing literature on Gypsy and Traveller women, the suppression of alternative knowledge and modes of thinking, to the silences encountered within academia, policy documents, and administrative data—the complexity of censorship and absence is problematised. The chapter explains the ‘problem’ of trying to categorise, define and name these communities. In Scotland, they constitute a heterogeneous group with different languages, cultures and ethnic identities.

References

  1. Acton, T. (1974) Gypsy politics and social change. London: Routledge and Paul.Google Scholar
  2. Acton, T. (1994) Modernisation, moral panics and the Gypsies. Sociology Review, 4(1), pp. 24–28.Google Scholar
  3. Acton, T. (ed.) (1997) Gypsy politics and Traveller identity. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.Google Scholar
  4. Acton, T. A. (ed.) (2000) Scholarship and the Gypsy Struggle: Commitment in Romani Studies: A Collection of Papers and Poems to Celebrate Donald Kenrick’s Seventieth Year. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.Google Scholar
  5. Acton, T. (2004) Modernity, culture and ‘Gypsies’: Is there a meta-scientific method for understanding the representation of ‘Gypsies’? And do Dutch really exist? In: Saul, N., and Tebbutt, S. The role of the Romanies. Images and counter-images of ‘Gypsies’/Romanies in European cultures. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Acton, T. (2007) Here to stay: The Gypsies and Travellers of Great Britain. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(2), pp. 1170–1171.Google Scholar
  7. Acton, T., and Mundy, G. (eds.) (1997) Romani culture and Gypsy identity. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.Google Scholar
  8. Ahmed, S. (2012) On being included: Racism and diversity in institutional life. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Amnesty International. (2010, June) Letter written by J. Watson to Aberdeen City Council Chief Executive.Google Scholar
  10. Anzaldúa, G. (1987) Borderlands/La frontera. San Francisco: Aunt Lute.Google Scholar
  11. Archer, L. (2002) Change, culture and tradition: British Muslim pupils talk about Muslim girls’ post-16 ‘choices’. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 5(4), pp. 359–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Basit, T. N. (1996) ‘I’d hate to be just a housewife’: Career aspirations of British Muslim girls. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 24(2), pp. 227–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Basit, T. N. (1997) ‘I want more freedom, but not too much’: British Muslim girls and the dynamism of family values. Gender and education, 9(4), pp. 425–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bauman, Z. (1989) Modernity and the Holocaust. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bauman, Z. (2001) Community. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bell, E. J., Riding, M. H., Collier, P. W., Wilson, N. C., and Reid, D. (1983) Susceptibility of itinerants (“travelling people”) in Scotland to poliomyelitis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 61(5), p. 839.Google Scholar
  17. Belton, B. (2005) Questioning Gypsy identity: Ethnic narratives in Britain and America. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira.Google Scholar
  18. Belton, B. A. (2013) ‘Weak power’: Community and identity. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36(2), pp. 282–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. BEMIS (2011) Gypsy Travellers in contemporary Scotland: The 2001 ‘inquiry into Gypsy Travellers and public sector policies’: Ten years on. Glasgow: BEMIS.Google Scholar
  20. Berlant, L. (1997) The Queen of America Goes to Washington City: Essays on Sex and Citizenship. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Bhopal, K. (2018) White privilege: The myth of a post-racial society. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  22. Bhopal, K., and Myers, M. (2008) Insiders, outsiders and others: Gypsies and identity. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.Google Scholar
  23. Brockie, W. (1884) The Gypsies of Yetholm: Historical, traditional, philological and humorous. Kelso: J. H. Rutherford.Google Scholar
  24. Caravan Sites and Control of Development Act. (1960) Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Eliz2/8-9/62. Accessed 12 January 2013.
  25. Cemlyn, S. (2006) Human rights and Gypsies and Travellers: An exploration of the application of a human rights perspective to social work with a minority community in Britain. British Journal of Social Work, 38(1), pp. 153–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cemlyn, S., Greenfields, M., Burnett, S., Matthews, Z., and Whitwell, C. (2009) Inequalities experienced by Gypsy and Traveller communities: A review. Research Report 12. Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission. Available at: https://dera.ioe.ac.uk/11129/1/12inequalities_experienced_by_gypsy_and_traveller_communities_a_review.pdf.
  27. Chambers, W. (1886) Exploits and anecdotes of the Scottish Gypsies: With traits of their origin, character, and manners. Edinburgh: W. Brown.Google Scholar
  28. Clarke, B. (1998) The Irish travelling community—Outcasts of the Celtic Tiger? Dilemmas for social work. Social Work in Europe, 5, pp. 28–34.Google Scholar
  29. Clark, C. (2001) ‘Invisible lives’: The Gypsies and Travellers of Britain. Unpublished PhD thesis, Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  30. Clark, C. (2006) Defining ethnicity in a cultural and socio-legal context: The case of Scottish Gypsy-Travellers. Scottish Affairs, 54, pp. 39–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clark, C. (2008) Introduction themed section care or control? Gypsies, Travellers and the state. Social Policy and Society, 7(1), pp. 65–71.Google Scholar
  32. Clark, C. (2013) Agency, empowerment and inclusion: The challenges facing Roma youth in Europe today. Voice: A Global Youth Magazine, 1(1), pp. 34–36.Google Scholar
  33. Clark, C. (2014) ‘Glasgow’s Ellis Island? The integration and stigmatisation of Govanhill’s Roma population’. People, Place and Policy, 8(1), pp. 34–50.Google Scholar
  34. Clark, C., and Campbell E. (2000) “Gypsy Invasion”: A critical analysis of newspaper reaction to Czech and Slovak Romani asylum-seekers in Britain, 1997. Romani Studies (Continuing Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society), 10(1), pp. 23–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Clark, C., and Greenfields, M. (2006) Here to stay: The Gypsies and Travellers of Britain. Hatfield: University of Herfordshire Press.Google Scholar
  36. Clark, C., and Taylor, B. (2014) Is nomadism the ‘problem’? The social construction of Gypsies and Travellers as perpetrators of ‘anti-social’ behaviour in Britain. In: Pickard, S. (ed.) Anti-social behaviour in Britain: Victorian and contemporary perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 166–178.Google Scholar
  37. Clavell-Bate, R. (2012) Elective home education: Supporting access to education for children and young people within the Gypsy, Roma and Traveller community. In: J. Visser, H. Daniels, and T. Cole (eds.) Transforming troubled lives: Strategies and interventions for children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Bradford: Emerald Group Publishing, p.175–191.Google Scholar
  38. Cohen, S. (1972) Folk devils and moral panics. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  39. Cohen, S. (1980) Symbols of trouble: Introduction to the new edition. In: S. Cohen (ed.) Folk devils and moral panics: The creation of the mods and rockers. London: Martin Robertson.Google Scholar
  40. Cohen, S. (1985) Visions of social control: Crime, punishment and classification. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  41. Collins. P. H. (2000) Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness and the politics of empowerment. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Copp, A. L. (1986) The nurse as advocate for vulnerable persons. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 11, pp. 255–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Council of Europe. (2012) Glossary on Roma (2006). Available at: http://hub.coe.int/what-we-do/human-rights/roma-and-travellers. Accessed 11 November 2013.
  44. Council of Europe. (2018) Council of Europe honours Roma victims of the Holocaust: “Acknowledge the past and improve Roma rights today”. Available at: https://www.coe.int/en/web/portal/-/council-of-europe-honours-roma-victims-of-the-holocaust-acknowledge-the-past-and-improve-roma-rights-today-. Accessed 16 August 2018.
  45. Coxhead, J. (2007) The last bastion of racism: Gypsies, Travellers and policing. Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books.Google Scholar
  46. Crenshaw, K. (1991) Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), pp. 1241–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cressy, D. (2018) Gypsies: An English history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Davis, K., and Evans, M. (eds.) (2011) Transatlantic conversations: Feminism as travelling theory. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  49. Dawson, R. M. (1971) The Tinklers of Arran. Romani Studies, 50(65).Google Scholar
  50. Dawson, R. (2005) The 1895 Scottish Traveller Report. Derbyshire: Dawson and Rackley.Google Scholar
  51. Dawson, R. (2007) Empty lands: Aspects of Scottish Traveller survival. Derbyshire: Dawson Publishing.Google Scholar
  52. Delanty, G. (2010) Community. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Deleuze, G., and Guattari, F. (1977) Rhizom (Vol. 67). Berlin: Merve Verlag.Google Scholar
  54. Deleuze, G., and Guattari, F. (1987) A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. London: The Athlone Press, pp. 3–25.Google Scholar
  55. Duffee, D. (1980) Explaining criminal justice: Community theory and criminal justice reform. Cambridge, MA: Oelgeschlager, Gunn and Hain.Google Scholar
  56. Duncan, T. (1996) Neighbour’s views of official sites for Travelling people: A survey based on three case studies in Scotland. Glasgow: The Planning Exchange, The Joseph Rowntree Foundation.Google Scholar
  57. Dwyer, C. (2000) Negotiating diasporic identities: Young British South Asian Muslim women. Women’s Studies International Forum, 23(4), pp. 475–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. EHRC. (2015) Developing successful site provision for Scotland’s Gypsy/Traveller communities. Available at: https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/successful_site_provision_scotland.pdf. Accessed 21 April 2015.
  59. Emejulu, A. (2013) Being and belonging in Scotland: Exploring the intersection of ethnicity, gender and national identity among Scottish Pakistani groups. Scottish Affairs, 84(1), pp. 41–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Equal Opportunities Committee. (2001) Inquiry into Gypsy Travellers and public sector policies. Available at: bemis.org.uk/docs/gypsy_travellers_in_contemporary_scotland.pdf. Accessed 6 March 2013.
  61. Farris, S. R., and de Jong, S. (2014) Discontinuous intersections: Second-generation immigrant girls in transition from school to work. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37(9), pp. 1505–1525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Feder, G. (1990) The politics of Traveller health research. Critical Public Health, 1(3), pp. 10–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fernback, J. (2007) Beyond the diluted community concept: A symbolic interactionist perspective on online social relations. New Media & Society, 9(1), pp. 49–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Foucault, M. (1980) Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  65. Fraser, A. (1953) The Gypsy problem: A survey of post-war developments. Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, 3(3–4), pp. 82–100.Google Scholar
  66. Fraser, N. (2007) Re-framing justice in a globalizing world. In: T. Lovell (ed.) (Mis)recognition, social inequality and social justice: Nancy Fraser and Pierre Bourdieu. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 17–35.Google Scholar
  67. Gmelch, G. (1975) The effects of economic change on Irish Traveller sex roles and marriage patterns. In: Rehfisch, F. (ed.) Gypsies, Tinkers and other Travellers, London: Academic Press, pp. 257–269.Google Scholar
  68. Gmelch, S. B. (1982) Gypsies in British cities: Problems and government response. Urban Anthropology, 11(3/4) pp. 347–376.Google Scholar
  69. Grampian Regional Council Social Strategy Unit. (1994) Movin’ on: A staff development awareness training pack on Scotland’s Travelling people. Aberdeen: Grampian Regional Council.Google Scholar
  70. Green, R. M. (2013) Bearing memory: Re-visioning Scottish Traveller stories from 1950–2013. Unpublished PhD thesis, Colchester: University of Essex.Google Scholar
  71. Greenfeld, H. (1977) Gypsies. New York: Crown.Google Scholar
  72. Griffin, C. (2008) Nomads under the Westway: Irish Travellers, Gypsies and other traders in West London. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.Google Scholar
  73. Groome, F. H. (1890–1891) Transportation of Gypsies from Scotland to America. Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, 2(1), pp. 60–62.Google Scholar
  74. Grönfors, M. (1982) From scientific social science to responsible research: The lesson of the Finnish Gypsies. Acta Sociologica, 25(3), pp. 249–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Grosz, E. A. (1994) Volatile bodies: Toward a corporeal feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  76. GRTPA. (2014) Gypsy/Roma/Traveller police association. Available at: www.grtpa.com. Accessed 5 May 2014.
  77. Gutiérrez, K. (2004) Rethinking community: Implications for research. In The 17th Annual Conference on Interdisciplinary Qualitative Studies. University of Georgia, Athens, GA, January, pp. 9–11.Google Scholar
  78. Gutiérrez, K. D., and Arzubiaga, A. E. (2012) An ecological and activity theoretic approach to studying diasporic and nondominant communities. Research on schools, neighbourhoods, and communities: Toward civic responsibility, pp. 203–216.Google Scholar
  79. Gypsy Lore Society. (1912) Journal of the Gypsy lore society (Vol. 6). Liverpool: The Gypsy Lore Society.Google Scholar
  80. Gypsy Lore Society. (2015) Conference abstracts. Available at: http://www.gypsyloresociety.org/annual-meeting/2015-gypsy-lore-society-conference-abstracts. Accessed 5 August 2015.
  81. Hancock, I. F. (1987) The pariah syndrome: An account of Gypsy slavery and persecution. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma Publishers.Google Scholar
  82. Hancock, I. (1997) The struggle for the control of identity. The Patrin Web Journal. Available at: www.geocities.com/Paris/5121/identity.htm.
  83. Hancock, I. (2010) Danger! educated Gypsy: Selected essays. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.Google Scholar
  84. Hawes, D., and Perez, B. (1996) The Gypsy and the state: The ethnic cleansing of British society, 2nd ed. Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  85. Heaslip, V. A. (2015) Experience of vulnerability from a Gypsy/Travelling perspective: A phenomenological study. Unpublished PhD thesis, Bournemouth: Bournemouth University.Google Scholar
  86. Heuss, H. (2000) Anti-Gypsyism research: The creation of a new field of study. In: Acton, T. (ed.) Scholarship and the Gypsy struggle: Commitment in Romani studies. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, pp. 52–67.Google Scholar
  87. Holloway, S. L. (2003) Outsiders in rural society? Constructions of rurality and nature-society relations in the racialisation of English Gypsy-Travellers, 1869–1934. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 21(6), pp. 695–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hood, M. (1960) The challenge of “bi-musicality”. Ethnomusicology, 4(2), pp. 55–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. hooks, b. (1981) Ain’t I a woman: Black women and feminism. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
  90. hooks, b. (2010) Teaching critical thinking: Practical wisdom. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  91. James, Z. (2007) Policing marginal spaces: Controlling Gypsies and Travellers. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 7(4), pp. 367–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Jarman, E., and Jarman, A. O. H. (1991) The Welsh Gypsies: Children of Abram Wood. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  93. Kaplan, A. (2005) The anarchy of empire in the making of US culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  94. Kaplan, E. A. (1997) Looking for the other: Feminism, film, and the imperial gaze. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kenrick, D. (1993) From India to the Mediterranean: The migration of the Gypsies (Vol. 3). Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.Google Scholar
  96. Kenrick, D. (1998) Historical dictionary of the Gypsies (Romanies). Lanham: Scarecrow Press.Google Scholar
  97. Kenrick, D., and Clark, C. (1999) Moving on: The Gypsies and Travellers of Britain. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.Google Scholar
  98. Knowles, G., and Lander, V. (2011) Diversity, equality and achievement in education. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  99. Liégeois, J. P., and Gheorghe, N. (1995) Roma/Gypsies. London: Minority Rights Group.Google Scholar
  100. Lloyd, S. (1996) Behind the picture postcard: Domestic violence in rural areas. Women and access in rural areas, pp. 82–95.Google Scholar
  101. Lloyd, G. (2005) Problem girls: Understanding and supporting troubled and troublesome girls and young women. London: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  102. Lorde, A. (2007) Sister outsider: Essays and speeches. Berkeley: Crossing Press.Google Scholar
  103. Mackenzie, A. (1883 [2012]) The History of the Highland clearances, Lenox, MA: Hard Press Publishing.Google Scholar
  104. MacRitchie, D. (1894) Scottish Gypsies under the Stewarts. Edinburgh: D. Douglas.Google Scholar
  105. Mandla vs. Dowell-Lee [1983] UKHL 7, (1983) 2 AC 548. Available at: http://www.bailii.org/uk/cases/UKHL/1982/7.html.
  106. Mayall, D. (1995) English Gypsies and state policy. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.Google Scholar
  107. Mayall, D. (1997) Egyptians and vagabonds: Representations of the Gypsy in early modern official and rogue literature. Immigrants and Minorities, 16(3), pp. 55–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mayall, D. (2004) History of Gypsy identities 1500–2000: From Egyptians and Moonmen to Ethnic Romany. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  109. McCaffery, J. (2009) Gypsies and Travellers: Literacy, discourse and communicative practices. Compare, 39(5), pp. 643–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. McCormick, A. (1907) The Tinkler-Gypsies. Dumfries: J. Maxwell and Son.Google Scholar
  111. McKinney, R. (2001) Different lessons: Scottish Gypsy/Travellers and the future of education. Edinburgh: Scottish Travellers Consortium.Google Scholar
  112. McKinney, R. (2003) Views from the margins: Gypsy/Travellers and the ethnicity debate in the new Scotland. Scottish Affairs, 42 (Winter), pp. 13–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. MECOPP. (2012) Hidden carers, unheard voices. Edinburgh: Minority Ethnic Carers of People Project. Available at: http://www.mecopp.org.uk/files/documents/annual_reports/hidden_carers___unheard_voices_report.pdf. Accessed 21 November 2012.
  114. MECOPP., Lloyd, M., and Ross, P. (eds.) (2014) Moving Minds: Gypsy/Travellers in Scotland. Edinburgh: MECOPP.Google Scholar
  115. Mirza, H. S. (2015) Harvesting our collective intelligence: Black British feminism in post-race times. Women’s Studies International Forum, 51, pp. 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Morris, R. (2000) The invisibility of Gypsies and other Travellers. Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, 21(4), pp. 397–404.Google Scholar
  117. Morris, R. (2003) Romaphobia: Animosity, exclusion, invisibility and Travelling people in the UK. Unpublished PhD thesis, Cardiff: Cardiff University.Google Scholar
  118. Morris, R. C., and Clements, L. J. (2002) At what cost?: The economics of Gypsy and Traveller encampments. Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  119. Mulvey, L. (1975) Visual pleasure and narrative cinema. Screen, 16(3), pp. 6–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mulvey, L. (1989) British feminist film theory’s female spectators: Presence and absence. Camera Obscura: Feminism, Culture, and Media Studies, 7(2–3 [20–21]), pp. 68–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Murray, R. (1875 [1983]) The Gypsies of the border. Galashiels: RC Hodges.Google Scholar
  122. National Association of Teachers of Travellers (NATT). (2015) Gypsy Roma Traveller History Month: Myths and Truths. Available at: http://grthm.natt.org.uk/myths-and-truths.php. Accessed 3 September 2014.
  123. Neat, T. (1996) The summer walkers: Travelling people and pearl-fishers in the Highlands of Scotland. Edinburgh: Canongate.Google Scholar
  124. Neat, T. (1999) The voice of the bard: Living poets and ancient tradition in the Highlands and Islands. Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited.Google Scholar
  125. Nemeth, D. (2002) Gypsy-American: An ethnogeography. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.Google Scholar
  126. Ni Shuinear, S. (1997) Why do Gaujos hate Gypsies so much anyway? In: Acton, T. (ed.) Gypsy politics and Traveller identity, Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, pp. 26–53.Google Scholar
  127. Okely, J. (1975) Gypsies travelling in southern England. In: Rehfisch, F. (ed.) Gypsies, Tinkers and other Travellers, London: Academic Press, pp. 55–66.Google Scholar
  128. Okely, J. (1983) The Traveller-Gypsies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  129. Okely, J. (1994) Constructing difference: Gypsies as “other”. Anthropological Journal on European Cultures, 3(2), pp. 55–73.Google Scholar
  130. Oxford Dictionary. (2015) Oxford Dictionary Online. Cant [Def. 2]. Available at: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/cant. Accessed 13 September 2014.
  131. Parry, G., Van Cleemput, P., Peters, J., and Moore, J. et al. (2004) The Health Status of Gypsies and Travellers in England. Sheffield: University of Sheffield.Google Scholar
  132. Porter, J., and Gower, H. (1995) Jeannie Robertson: Emergent singer, transformative voice. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.Google Scholar
  133. Prebble, J. (1971) The lion in the north: A personal view of Scotland’s history. New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan.Google Scholar
  134. Razack, S. (ed.). (2002) Race, space, and the law: Unmapping a White Settler Society. Toronto: Between the Lines.Google Scholar
  135. Rehfisch, A., and Rehfisch, F. (1975) Scottish Travellers or Tinkers. In: Rehfisch, F. (ed.) Gypsies, Tinkers and other Travellers. London: Academic Press, pp. 271–283.Google Scholar
  136. Reid, W. (1997) Scottish Gypsies/Travellers and the folklorists. Romani culture and Gypsy identity, pp. 29–37.Google Scholar
  137. Reid, S. (2008) Never to return: The harrowing story of a stolen childhood. Edinburgh: Black and White Publishing.Google Scholar
  138. Reynolds, M., McCartan, D., and Knipe, D. (2003) Traveller culture and lifestyle as factors influencing children’s integration into mainstream secondary schools in West Belfast. International Journal Inclusive Education, 7(4), pp. 403–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Richardson, J. (2006) The Gypsy debate: Can discourse control? Exeter: Imprint Academic.Google Scholar
  140. Richardson, J., and Ryder, A. (2012) Gypsies and Travellers: Empowerment and inclusion in British society. British: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  141. Ridge, M., and Yin-Har Lau, A. (2011) Addressing the impact of social exclusion on mental health in Gypsy, Roma, and Traveller communities. Mental Health and Social Inclusion, 15(3), pp. 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Save the Children Scotland. (2005) Having our say. Available at: http://www.gypsy-Traveller.org/your-family/young-people/educational-reports-and-resources. Accessed November 2012.
  143. Schröter, M. (2013) Silence and concealment in political discourse (Vol. 48). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Scottish Centre for Social Research. (2010) Scottish Social Attitudes Survey 2010. Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/355763/0120175.pdf. Accessed 7 November 2012.
  145. Scottish Centre for Social Research. (2015) Scottish Social Attitudes Survey 2015 [Online]. Available at: https://www.gov.scot/publications/scottish-social-attitudes-2015-attitudes-discrimination-positive-action/. Accessed 10 October 2016.
  146. Seagrave, J. (1996) Defining community policing. American Journal of Police, 15(2), pp. 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Shubin, S. (2010) “Where can a Gypsy stop?” Rethinking mobility in Scotland. Antipode, 43(2), pp. 494–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Shubin, S. (2011) Travelling as being: Understanding mobility amongst Scottish Gypsy Travellers. Environment and Planning A, 43(8), pp. 1930–1947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Smart, H., Titterton, M., and Clark, C. (2003) A literature review of the health of Gypsy/Traveller families in Scotland: The challenges for health promotion. Health Education, 103(3), pp. 156–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Smith, J. (2002) Jessie’s journey: Autobiography of a Traveller girl (Vol. 1). Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited.Google Scholar
  151. Smith, J. (2006) Bruar’s rest. Edinburgh: Mercat Press.Google Scholar
  152. Smith, J. (2008) Tales from the tent. Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited.Google Scholar
  153. Smith, J. (2012) Way of the wanderers: The story of Travellers in Scotland. Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited.Google Scholar
  154. Spears, A. K. (2006) “Perspectives: A view of the ‘N-Word’ from sociolinguistics”. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 12 July 2006. Retrieved October 2015: http://diverseeducation.com/article/6114/.
  155. STEP. (2013) Scottish Traveller Education Programme, The University of Edinburgh. Available at: http://www.step.education.ed.ac.uk/travelling-communities-in-scotland/. Accessed September 2012 to November 2014.
  156. Stewart, M. (1997) The time of the Gypsies. Oxford: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  157. Stewart, S. (2006) Queen amang the heather: The life of Belle Stewart. Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited.Google Scholar
  158. Stewart, S. (2008) Pilgrims of the mist: The stories of Scotland’s Travelling people. Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited.Google Scholar
  159. Stewart, M. (2012) Gypsy ‘menace’. London: Hurst and Company.Google Scholar
  160. Surdu, M. (2016) Those who count. Budapest: Central European University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Talbani, A., and Hasanali, P. (2000) Adolescent females between tradition and modernity: Gender role socialization in South Asian immigrant culture. Journal of Adolescence, 23(5), pp. 615–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Taylor, Charles. (1994) The politics of recognition. In Goldberg D. T. (ed.) Multiculturalism: A Critical Reader. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 75–106.Google Scholar
  163. The Encyclopaedia Britannica. (1954) Gypsy, p. 852.Google Scholar
  164. The Encyclopaedia Britannica. (1974) Slang in European Languages, pp. 852–853f.Google Scholar
  165. The Scottish Government. (2010) Gypsies/Travellers in Scotland: The twice-yearly count. Available at: https://www.gov.scot/Publications/2010/08/18105029/3. Accessed 16 August 2018.
  166. The Scottish Parliament. (2013) Equal Opportunities Committee 1st Report 2013 (Session 4): Where Gypsy/Travellers live. Available at: http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/S4_EqualOpportunitiesCommittee/Reports/eor-13-01w.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2013.
  167. Thompson, T. W. (1928) Gleanings from constables’ accounts and other sources. Romani Studies, 7(1), pp. 30–48.Google Scholar
  168. Tobler, C. A. (2012) Breathing it in: The musical identity of the Scottish Travellers. Unpublished PhD thesis, Baltimore: University of Maryland Press.Google Scholar
  169. Tong, D. (1998) Gypsies: An interdisciplinary reader. London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  170. Traveller Times. (2018) Gypsy, Roma and Traveller children in care—A TT investigation. Available at: https://www.travellerstimes.org.uk/features/gypsy-roma-and-traveller-children-care-tt-investigation. Accessed 20 August 2018.
  171. United Nations. (2009) Permanent forum in indigenous issues fact sheet. Available at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/5session_factsheet1.pdf. Accessed 8 March 2015.
  172. Walkerdine, V., Lucey, H., and Melody, J. (2001) Growing up girl: Psycho-social explorations of gender and class. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  173. Whyte, B. (2000) Red rowans and wild honey. Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited.Google Scholar
  174. Whyte, B. (2001) The yellow on the broom: The early days of a Traveller woman. Edinburgh: Birlinn Publishers.Google Scholar
  175. Whyte, D. (2001) Scottish Gypsies and other Travellers: A short history. Alfreton: Robert Dawson.Google Scholar
  176. Williamson, D. (1994) The Horsieman: Memories of a Traveller 1928–1958. Edinburgh: Canongate Press.Google Scholar
  177. Wilson, J. M., and Leighton, A. (1885) Wilson’s Tales of the borders and of Scotland: Historical, traditionary, and imaginative, with a glossary (Vol. 2). Glasgow: William MacKenzie.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geetha Marcus
    • 1
  1. 1.University of GlasgowGlasgowUK

Personalised recommendations