Osteoporosis is a common systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone strength leading to increased risk of fracture. The occurrence of a fracture is associated with serious clinical consequences that include pain, disability, loss of independence, and death. Osteoporosis is diagnosed by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) or in some cases by the presence of a fragility fracture or high fracture probability independently of BMD. Evaluation for secondary causes of osteoporosis provides an opportunity to identify and mitigate potentially reversible risk factors for fracture. Treatment of osteoporosis includes healthy lifestyle and good nutrition, prevention of falls, avoiding exposure to skeletal toxins, and pharmacological therapy to reduce fracture risk, when appropriate. A treated patient should be followed to assure adherence to therapy, response to therapy, and achievement of an acceptable level of fracture risk.
KeywordsOsteoporosis Fracture Diagnosis Evaluation Treatment ECHO
In the past year, E. Michael Lewiecki has received institutional grant/research support from Amgen, Merck, and Eli Lilly; he has served on scientific advisory boards for Amgen, Merck, Eli Lilly, Radius Health, Shire, AbbVie, and Alexion; he serves on the speakers’ bureau for Shire and Alexion.
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