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Examination of the Musculoskeletal System

  • Eleftherios Pelechas
  • Evripidis Kaltsonoudis
  • Paraskevi V. Voulgari
  • Alexandros A. Drosos
Chapter

Abstract

Rheumatology deals with autoimmune diseases that in great part affect the joints. Thus, the examination of the musculoskeletal system is of great importance. All joints can be affected, so a thorough and minute examination should be carried out for each patient. The joints of the limbs and spine should be assessed for their function. Measurement of joint range of motion (ROM) and assessment of muscle strength are essential parts of the examination. There is no standard technique for the examination of the joints, but a common sequence must be followed in order to avoid missing any clinical information from the examination. Inspection, palpation, joint ROM, muscle strength and also conduction of special tests/provocative maneuvers if needed, is a proposed sequence. The clinician should be focused on the symptomatic area but must be aware that sometimes the referring pain from the patient to a specific area may radiate from a distant point. For this reason, it is proposed to examine also the joints that lie proximal and distal to the apparently affected.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eleftherios Pelechas
    • 1
  • Evripidis Kaltsonoudis
    • 1
  • Paraskevi V. Voulgari
    • 1
  • Alexandros A. Drosos
    • 1
  1. 1.Rheumatology Clinic - Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece

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