Multilayeredness of Anticipation

  • Robert Zaborowski
Part of the Anticipation Science book series (ANTISC, volume 4)


In the paper I argue for the multilayeredness of anticipation. After presenting what multilayeredness is and how it may be understood, I analyse three main axes of multilayeredness of anticipation. These are short- versus long-term perspective, then existence versus non-existence, and, finally, first- versus second-order anticipation. The three axes concern, respectively, lifetime, existence understood as extending beyond the death of an individual and awareness of anticipation. They involve the tension between, respectively, short-distanced and long-distanced futures, the inward and the outward and anticipating and meta-anticipating. I conclude that these characteristics may be accepted as formal criteria for distinguishing the different ways in which anticipation may be viewed.


Anticipation Multilayeredness Meta-anticipating 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Zaborowski
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Warmia and Mazury in OlsztynOlsztynPoland

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