Election Day Breakdowns in the Twenty-First Century: Voting Landscape and Integrity vs. Access
This chapter details the American voting landscape since the year 2000 and the political conditions that continue to shape conversations about integrity versus access and guide election reform. In this chapter, I review key legislative and executive actions that have significantly impacted election administration, as well as the perennial challenges that arise. Importantly, a policy that can be implemented in ostensibly neutral ways nevertheless has partisan impacts. While progress has been made on some of the election issues, other challenges stubbornly persist despite intervention. In this chapter, I also discuss the important, not yet realized, contribution of President Obama’s Presidential Commission on Election Administration (PCEA). I use the reform areas outlined in the PCEA Commission report to frame the subsequent substantive chapters on specific election reforms.
- Associated Press. 2017. “How States Are Handling Trump’s Voter Information Request.” U.S. News and World Report, August 9. https://www.usnews.com/news/best-states/hawaii/articles/2017-08-09/how-states-are-handling-trumps-voter-information-request. Accessed December 13, 2017.
- Balz, Dan. 2005. “Carter-Baker Panel to Call for Voting Fixes.” Washington Post, September 19. Associated Press. https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/18/AR2005091801364.html. Accessed December 13, 2017.
- Bauer, Robert F., Benjamin L. Ginsberg, Brian Britton, Joe Echevarria, Trey Grayson, Larry Lomax, Michele Coleman Mayes, Ann McGeehan, Tammy Patrick, Christopher Thomas, and Nathaniel Persily. 2014. The American Voting Experience: Report and Recommendations of the Presidential Commission on Election Administration. Washington, DC: Presidential Commission on Election Administration.Google Scholar
- Bridis, Ted. 2006. “Ney Will Plead Guilty to Abramoff-Linked Charges.” The Houston Chronicle, September 15. https://www.chron.com/news/nation-world/article/Ney-will-plead-guilty-to-Abramoff-linked-charges-1504017.php. Accessed July 7, 2018.
- Clayton, Mark. 2012. “Voting-Machine Glitches: How Bad Was It on Election Day Around the Country?” CS Monitor, November 7. https://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Elections/2012/1107/Voting-machine-glitches-How-bad-was-it-on-Election-Day-around-the-country. Accessed April 9, 2018.
- Democracy Fund. 2016. “Progress Report on the Presidential Commission on Election Administration.” http://www.democracyfund.org/media/uploaded/Progress_Report_on_the_PCEA_September_2016.pdf. Accessed October 29, 2017.
- Eversole, Eric. 2011. Military Voting in 2010: A Step Forward, but a Long Way to Go. Military Families United’s Military Voter Protection Project.Google Scholar
- Gerstein, Josh. 2017. “Court: Trump Voter Fraud Commission Must Give Democrat Member More Access.” Politico, December 22. https://www.politico.com/story/2017/12/22/trump-voter-fraud-committee-democrat-access-318433. Accessed August 6, 2018.
- Government Accountability Office. 2005. “Federal Efforts to Improve Security and Reliability of Electronic Voting Systems Are Under Way, but Key Activities Need to Be Completed.” September.Google Scholar
- Huefner, Steven F. 2012. “Lessons from Improvements in Military and Overseas Voting.” University of Richmond Law Review 47: 833.Google Scholar
- Lopez, Tomas. 2014. “‘Shelby County’: One Year Later.” Brennan Center for Justice. https://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/shelby-county-one-year-later. Accessed November 17, 2017.
- McCormack, John. 2016. “The Election Came Down to 77,744 Votes in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Michigan (Updated).” The Weekly Standard, November 10. https://www.weeklystandard.com/john-mccormack/the-election-came-down-to-77-744-votes-in-pennsylvania-wisconsin-and-michigan-updated. Accessed May 22, 2018.
- National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). 2016. “Election Administration at State and Local Levels.” National Conference of State Legislatures, June 15. http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/election-administration-at-state-and-local-levels.aspx. Accessed December 12, 2017.
- Neuman, Scott. 2017. “ACLU Files Suit Against White House Election Fraud Commission.” NPR.org, July 10. https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/07/10/536492885/aclu-files-suit-against-white-house-election-fraud-commission. Accessed December 13, 2017.
- Norden, Lawrence, and Christopher Famighetti. 2015. “America’s Voting Machines at Risk.” Brennan Center for Justice, September 15. https://www.brennancenter.org/publication/americas-voting-machines-risk. Accessed December 13, 2017.
- Obama, Barack. 2013. “The 2013 State of the Union Address.” Capitol Building, Washington, DC, 12.Google Scholar
- Oremus, Will. 2012. “Should We Be Concerned That This Voting Machine Selects ‘Romney’ When You Press ‘Obama?’” Slate, November 6.Google Scholar
- Patrick, Tammy. 2014. “American Voting Experience: Report of the Presidential Commission on Election Administration.” Presentation at the National Conference of State Legislators Legislative Conference, Minneapolis, MN, August 20.Google Scholar
- Powell, Michael, and Peter Slevin. 2004. “Several Factors Contributed to ‘Lost’ Voters in Ohio.” The Washington Post, December 15. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A64737-2004Dec14.html. Accessed November 28, 2017.
- Sherman, Jon. n.d. “Provisional Ballot Counting Laws and Wrong Precinct Rejections.” American Civil Liberties Union. https://www.aclu.org/files/assets/Provisional_Ballot_Counting_Rules.pdf. Accessed August 25, 2018.
- Starks, Tim. 2017. “The Latest 2018 Election-Hacking Threat: 9-Month Wait for Government Help.” Politico, December 29.Google Scholar
- Stewart III, Charles. 2018. “Trump’s Controversial Election Integrity Commission Is Gone. Here’s What Comes Next.” The Washington Post, January 4. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2018/01/04/trumps-controversial-election-integrity-commission-is-gone-heres-what-comes-next/?utm_term=.0b0605b43510. Accessed August 25, 2018.
- Tokaji, Daniel P. 2005. “The New Vote Denial: Where Election Reform Meets the Voting Rights Act.” SCL Review 57: 689.Google Scholar
- Turque, Bill, and Carol D. Leonnig. 2012. “Voting Problems Reported in Several States.” The Washington Post, November 6. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/decision2012/voting-problems-reported-in-several-states/2012/11/06/c4b98336-27b2-11e2-b2a0-ae18d6159439_story.html?utm_term=.a96781d5c227. Accessed December 28, 2017.
- Uchill, Joe. 2017. “House Dem Seeks to Restore Funding to the Election Assistance Commission.” The Hill, June 29. http://thehill.com/policy/cybersecurity/340143-house-dem-seeks-to-restore-funding-to-the-election-assistance-commission. Accessed November 28, 2017.
- United States Election Assistance Commission. 2017a. “The Election Administration and Voting Survey 2016 Comprehensive Report: A Report to the 115th Congress.” https://www.eac.gov/assets/1/6/2016_EAVS_Comprehensive_Report.pdf. Accessed December 22, 2017.
- United States Election Assistance Commission. 2017b. “Help America Vote Act.” https://www.eac.gov/about/help-america-vote-act/. Accessed November 22, 2017.
- Waddell, Kaveh. 2017. “Why Elections Are Now Classified as ‘Critical Infrastructure.’” The Atlantic, January 13. https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2017/01/why-the-government-classified-elections-as-critical-infrastructure/513122/. Accessed December 13, 2017.
- Wines, Michael. 2017. “Voter Fraud Panel Is Sued Again, This Time by a Member.” The New York Times, November 9. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/09/us/white-house-voter-fraud-panel-lawsuit.html. Accessed December 12, 2017.
- Wolff, Michael. 2018. Fire and Fury: Inside the Trump White House. New York: Henry Holt & Co.Google Scholar