Pamukkale Travertines: A Natural and Cultural Monument in the World Heritage List

  • Erhan AltunelEmail author
  • Francesco D’Andria
Part of the World Geomorphological Landscapes book series (WGLC)


The actively accumulating Pamukkale travertines and the ancient city of Hierapolis are located along the northern margin of the Denizli Basin in Western Turkey and are both included as a mixed natural and cultural property in the World Heritage List. Travertine terraces and pools (terraced-mound travertines) attract visitors to Pamukkale, but fissure-ridge travertines and self-built channel travertines are as attractive as terraced-mound travertines and they should be considered as natural monuments. In addition to major ancient buildings in the city centre of Hierapolis, there are other ancient structures such as quarries, water channels and aqueducts in the Pamukkale area. In order to save these natural monuments and cultural heritages for future generations, boundaries of the existing preservation plan should be enlarged immediately to cover all travertine bodies and cultural structures in the Pamukkale region.


Pamukkale Travertines World Heritage List Turkey 


  1. Altunel E (1994) Active tectonics and the evolution of Quaternary travertines at Pamukkale, Western Turkey. PhD thesis, University of Bristol (UK), 236 pGoogle Scholar
  2. Altunel E, Hancock PL (1993a). Active fissuring, faulting and travertine deposition at Pamukkale (W Turkey). In: Stewart IS, Vita-Finzi C, Owen LA (eds) Neotectonics and active faulting. Zeitschrift fur geomorfologie supply, vol 94, 285–302Google Scholar
  3. Altunel E, Hancock PL (1993b) Morphological features and tectonic setting of Quaternary travertines at Pamukkale, Western Turkey. Geol J 28:335–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bean G (1971) Turkey beyond the Maeander. Ernest Benn, London, 276 pGoogle Scholar
  5. D’Andria F (1987) Background of Hierapolis: geography and topography. Hierapolis di Frigia 1957–1987. Fabbri, TurinGoogle Scholar
  6. D’Andria F (2003) Hierapolis of Phrygia (Pamukkale). An Archaeological Guide, IstanbulGoogle Scholar
  7. D’Andria F (2013) Il Ploutonion a Hierapolis di Frigia. Ist Mitt 63:157–217 pGoogle Scholar
  8. De Bernardi Ferrero D (1987) Travellers. Hierapolis di Frigia 1957–1987. Fabbri, TurinGoogle Scholar
  9. Pamukkale (Hierapolis) Preservation and Development Plan and the International Workshop on Pamukkale (1991) Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture, general directorate for the preservation of the cultural and natural heritage, 140 pGoogle Scholar
  10. Ritti T (1987) History of Hierapolis. Hierapolis di Frigia 1957–1987, Fabbri, Turin.Google Scholar
  11. Wyatt A (ed) (1986) Challinor’s dictionary of geology 6th edn. University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 374 pGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyEskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskişehirTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Cultural HeritageUniversity of SalentoLecceItaly

Personalised recommendations