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Karstic Landscapes and Landforms in Turkey

  • Lütfi NazikEmail author
  • Murat Poyraz
  • Mustafa Karabıyıkoğlu
Chapter
Part of the World Geomorphological Landscapes book series (WGLC)

Abstract

Approximately, 40% of Turkey’s landmass consists of soluble rocks (limestone, dolomite, and gypsum) highly suitable for karstification. While presenting different lithological composition, lithostratigraphic and structural characteristics, these rocks reach in some places up to 4000 m in elevation. Tectonic movements since the middle Miocene have played, together with climate, a major role in the processes of karst development. Several factors intervene in the formation processes and history of the karstic landscapes of Turkey: structural dynamics (mainly extensional tectonics and block faulting) and its spatial distribution, relief rejuvenation responding to the combination of uplift intensity and sea-level changes and the stratigraphic/lithologic context. Resulting from the various combinations possible, there are large-scale differences in the evolution of the karstic landscape within short distances. Consequently, six karstic regions and eleven distinct sub-karstic areas can be identified on the basis of their different morphogenetic and morphometric characteristics.

Keywords

Karst Limestone Doline Neotectonic Turkey 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to extend our thanks to an anonymous reviewer and editor for making valuable efforts and immense editorial work for the improvement of the text.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lütfi Nazik
    • 1
    Email author
  • Murat Poyraz
    • 1
  • Mustafa Karabıyıkoğlu
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of GeographyKırşehir Ahi Evran UniversityKırşehirTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Humanities and Literature, Department of GeographyArdahan UniversityArdahanTurkey

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