Nemrut Caldera and Eastern Anatolian Volcanoes: Fire in the Highlands

  • İnan UlusoyEmail author
  • H. Evren Çubukçu
  • Damase Mouralis
  • Erkan Aydar
Part of the World Geomorphological Landscapes book series (WGLC)


Volcanism is one of the main actors in the formation of the Eastern Anatolian landscape. Quaternary volcanism covers a significant area in Eastern Anatolia where Holocene and historical activity have been reported. Nemrut Caldera is one of the youngest volcanoes in the region, with a small-size collapse caldera forming a spectacular landscape. Mount Nemrut is characterized by extension-related peralkaline volcanism in this well-known continental-collisional setting. Following the collapse of the Quaternary caldera, the activity continued within the caldera and at the northern fissure zone. Post-caldera activity shaping the intra-caldera region is represented by domes, lava flows and phreatic/phreatomagmatic explosions. While the products of this activity cover the eastern part of the caldera, the western half of the caldera is filled with a fresh volcanic lake. Hydrothermal activity is marked with fumaroles and hot springs in the caldera. The northern fissure zone produced the youngest effusive activity in Anatolia. Bimodal fissural activity is characterized by successive rhyolite and basalt flows. Historical and mythological records of the Nemrut volcanism are scattered in a wide historical time span. During the Quaternary, Mount Nemrut and Süphan have contributed to the gradual enclosure of Van Lake Basin. They are located on the divide separating the Van Lake Basin from the Murat-Euphrates drainage basin. Products of explosive volcanism of Nemrut Caldera filled the Bitlis and Güzeldere valleys, separating the Van Lake Basin from the Dicle-Tigris hydrosystem.


Nemrut volcano Caldera Van Lake Turkey 



The authors are thankful to Kevin McClain for his constructive remarks on improving the English of the manuscript. We are very grateful to Mustafa Sabri Türkay for permitting us to use his Nemrut photograph.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • İnan Ulusoy
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. Evren Çubukçu
    • 1
  • Damase Mouralis
    • 2
  • Erkan Aydar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geological EngineeringHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.UMR 6266 (IDEES) CNRS Rouen University and UMR 8591 (LGP) CNRS, Paris I UniversityParisFrance

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