Advertisement

The Tectonic Control on the Geomorphological Landscapes of Turkey

  • Catherine Kuzucuoğlu
  • A. M. Celâl Şengör
  • Attila Çiner
Chapter
Part of the World Geomorphological Landscapes book series (WGLC)

Abstract

The multifarious landforms making up the landscapes of Turkey are largely controlled by tectonic activity since the last 11 Ma, at most 23 Ma making surface correlation by elevation alone hazardous. This “neotectonic episode” is characterized by tectonic escape that created five neotectonic provinces in the country: (1) the shortening east Anatolian province corresponds to the eastern Anatolian highlands; (2) the gently E–W-shortening north Turkish province; (3) extensional west Anatolian province; (4) the gently NE–SW-shortening and NW–SE-extending Ova Province; and (5) the border folds (Assyrides) of the northernmost Arabian Plate. In each of these provinces, the rate and history of uplift, history of climate and rock types have dictated the details of land sculpture. Volcanic landforms dominate in the east, and karst dominates in the south. The other regions display more varied morphological types controlled mainly by rock type and climate. Although Turkey is moderately endowed in fossil glacial and periglacial forms, active glaciers are few and restricted to the high mountains in the extreme south-east of the country.

Keywords

Neotectonics Tectonic provinces Tectonic escape Turkey 

References

  1. Aksoy E, İnceöz M, Koçyiğit A (2007) Lake Hazar Basin: a negative flower structure on the east Anatolian Fault System (EAFS), SE Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 16:319–338Google Scholar
  2. Alagöz CA (1944) Türkiye Karst Olayları. Türk Coğrafya Kurumu Yayınları 1, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  3. Argand E (1924) La tectonique de l’Asie: Congrés Géologiques International, Compte-Rendus de la XIIme session, Premier Fascicule. H. Vaillant-Carmanne, Liège, pp 171–372Google Scholar
  4. Aydar E, Çubukçu E, Şen E, Akın L (2013) Central Anatolian plateau, Turkey: incision and paleoaltimetry recorded from volcanic rocks. Turk J Earth Sci 22:739–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barka A, Teilinger R, Şaroğlu F, Şengör AMC (1995) The Isparta angle: its importance in the neotectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region. In: Pişkin Ö, Ergün M, Savaşçın Y, Tarcan G (eds) Proceedings of the international earth sciences colloquium on the Aegean region (IESCA-95), İzmir 1:3–17Google Scholar
  6. Berndt C, Yıldırım C, Çiner A, Ertunç G, Sarıkaya MA, Özcan O, Kıyak NG, Öztürk T (2017) Timing and development of Late Quaternary fluvial terraces of the lower course of Kızılırmak River (Northern Turkey). EGU General Assembly, Vienna, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vienna, 19, EGU2017-1173Google Scholar
  7. Beug HK, Bottema S (2015) Late Glacial and Holocene vegetation history at Lake Yeniçağa, northern Turkey. Veg, Hist Archaeobot 24:293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blumenthal MM (1963) Le système structural du Taurus sud-Anatolien. In: Durand-Delga M (ed) Livre à la Mémoire du Professeur Paul Fallot, consacré à l’évolution paléogéographique et structurale des domaines méditerranéens et alpins d’Europe. Mémoire hors-série de Société Géologique de France, Paris, pp 611–662Google Scholar
  9. Bottema S, Woldring H, Aytuğ B (1993/1994) Late Quaternary vegetation history of northern Turkey. Palaeohistoria 35/36:13–72Google Scholar
  10. Bozkurt E (2001) Neotectonics of Turkey-A synthesis. Geodinamica Acta 14:3–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bozkurt E, Satır M, Buğdaycıoğlu Ç (2011) Surprisingly young Rb/Sr ages from the Simav extensional detachment fault zone, northern Menderes Massif, Turkey. J Geodyn 52:406–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bridgland DR, Westaway R, Abou Romieh M, Candy I, Daoud M, Demir T, Galiatsatos N, Schereve DC, Seyrek A, Shaw AD, White TS, Whittaker J (2012) The river Orontes in Syria and Turkey: downstream variation of fluvial archives in different crustal blocks. Geomorphol 165–166:25–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bulut F, Bohnhoff M, Eken T, Janssen C, Kılıç T, Dresen G (2012) The east Anatolian fault zone: seismotectonic setting and spatiotemporal characteristics of seismicity based on precise earthquake locations. J Geophys Res 117(B7).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jb008966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Çetin H, Güneyli H, Mayer L (2003) Paleoseismology of the Palu-Lake Hazar segment of the east Anatolian fault zone, Turkey. Tectonophys 374(3–4):163–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Çiner A, Karabıyıkoğlu M, Monod O, Deynoux M, Tuzcu S (2008) Late Cenozoic sedimentary evolution of the Antalya Basin, southern Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 17:1–41Google Scholar
  16. Çiner A, Doğan U, Yıldırım C, Akçar N, Ivy-Ochs S, Alfimov V, Kubik PW, Schlüchter C (2015) Quaternary uplift rates of the Central Anatolian Plateau, Turkey: insights from cosmogenic isochron-burial nuclide dating of the Kızılırmak River terraces. Quatern Sci Rev 107:81–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.10.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cosentino D, Schildgen TF, Cipollari P, Faranda C, Gliozzi E, Hudáčková N, Lucifora S, Strecker MR (2012) Late Miocene surface uplift of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian plateau, Central Taurides, Turkey. Geol Soc Am Bull 124:133–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Demircioğlu D, Ecevitoğlu B, Seyitoğlu G (2010) Evidence of a rolling hinge mechanism in the seismic records of the hydrocarbon-bearing Alaşehir Graben, western Turkey. Pet Geosci 16:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Derman AS (1999) Braided river deposits related to progressive Miocene surface uplift in Kahraman Maraş area, SE Turkey. Geol J 34 (Special issue: advances in Turkish geology, Part I) 1–2:159–174Google Scholar
  20. Dhont D, Chorowicz J, Yürür T, Froger J-L, Köse O, Gündoğdu N (1998) Emplacement of volcanic vents and geodynamics of Central Anatolia. Turkey J Volc Geoth Res 85:33–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Doğan U, Koçyiğit A, Gökkaya E (2017) Development of the Kembos and Eynif structural poljes: Morphotectonic evolution of the upper Manavgat River basin, central Taurides, Turkey. Geomorphol 278:105–120.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.10.030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Doğan U, Koçyiğit A (2018) Morphotectonic evolution of Maviboğaz canyon and Suğla polje, SW Central Anatolia, Turkey. Geomorphol 306:13–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2018.01.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ekmekçi M (2003) Review of Turkish karst with emphasis on tectonic and paleogeographic controls. Acta Carsologica 32:2Google Scholar
  24. Erinç S (1953) Doğu Anadolu Coğrafyası. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları No: 572, Edebiyat Fakültesi Coğrafya Enstitüsü Yayınları No: 15, İstanbul, 124 pGoogle Scholar
  25. Erinç S (1955) Die morphologischen Entwicklungsstadien der Küçükmenderes-Masse. Review of the geographical Institute of the University of İstanbul 2:93–96Google Scholar
  26. Erinç S (1960a) Konya bölümünde ve iç Toros sıralarında karst şekilleri üzerinde müşahadeler. Türk Coğrafya Dergisi 20:83–106Google Scholar
  27. Erinç S (1960b) On the karst features in Turkey. Rev Geogr Inst Univ Istanb 6:1–14Google Scholar
  28. Erinç S (1970) Contribution of geomorphology to the Quaternary of Turkey. Jeomorfol Derg 2(2):12–35 (with a full up-to-1970 reference list of Turkish/International published researches concerning geomorphology in Turkey) (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  29. Erinç S, Bilgin T, Bener M (1961) Gerede civarında akarsu şebekesi Revier drainage in the Gerede area). Review of the geographical Institute of the University of İstanbul 6:90–99 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  30. Eriş KK (2013) Late Pleistocene-holocene sedimentary records of climate and lake-level changes in Lake Hazar, eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Quaternary International:123–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eriş KK, Akçer S, Cağatay N, Aslan TN, Damcı E, Ülgen UB (2016) Deciphering paleoclimatic responses for the evolution of Late Pleistocene to Holocene sedimentary records of Lake Hazar, eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Geophysical research abstracts 18, EGU2016-1674-1Google Scholar
  32. Erol O (1986/1989). Türkiye’nin Jeomorfolojik Evrimi ve Bugünkü Genel Jeomorfolojik Görünümü. Türkiye Jeomorfolojisi. (The geomorphologic history of Turkey and aspects of its present evolution: a compilation of O. Erol’s lessons on the Geomorphology of Turkey). Available at doguates2000@yahoo.com (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  33. Erol O (1991) Geomorphological evolution of the Taurus mountains, Turkey. Zeitschr. für Geomorphologie N.F. Supp. Bd. 82:99–109Google Scholar
  34. Eroskay SO, Günay G (1979) Tecto-genetic classification and hydrogeological properties of the Karst regions in Turkey. In: International seminar on Karst hydrogeology. Oymapınar, Antalya, Turkey, pp 1–41, 9–19 Oct 1979Google Scholar
  35. Erturaç K, Tüysüz O (2012) Kinematics and Basin formation along the Ezinepazar-Sungurlu fault zone, NE Anatolia, Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 21(4):497–520Google Scholar
  36. Faridfathi FY, Ergin M (2012) Holocene sedimentation in the tectonically active Tekirdağ Basin, western Marmara Sea, Turkey. Quatern Int 261:75–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gelati R (1975) Miocene marine sequence from Lake Van, eastern Turkey. Riv Ital Paleont Stratigr 81:477–490Google Scholar
  38. Görür N (1982) Adana Havzası’nın petrol potansiyelinin değerlendirilmesinde yeni bir görüş (A new insight to the oil potential evaluation of the Adana Basin). In: Güven A, Dinçer A, Derman AS (eds), Proceedings of the 6th Congress of Geology in Turkey, pp 73–79Google Scholar
  39. Görür N, Oktay FY, Seymen İ, Şengör AMC (1984) Palaeotectonic evolution of the Tuzgölü Basin complex, Central Turkey: sedimentary record of a Neo-Tethyan closure. In: Dixon JE, Robertson AHF (eds) Geological evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Pub. 17, pp 467–482Google Scholar
  40. Göz E, Kadiri S, Gürel A, Eren M (2014) Geology, mineralogy, geochemistry, and depositional environment of a Late Miocene/Pliocene fluviolacustrine succession, Cappadocian volcanic province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 23:386–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gürbüz A, Boyraz S, Ismael MT (2012) Plio-quaternary development of the Baklan-Dinar graben: implications for cross-graben formation in SW Turkey. Int Geol Rev 54(1):33–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gürbüz A, Gürer ÖF (2008) Tectonic geomorphology of the north Anatolian fault zone in the Lake Sapanca Basin (Eastern Marmara Region, Turkey). Geosci J 12(3):215–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gürbüz E, Kazancı N, Gürbüz A (2015) Strike-slip faulting, topographic growth and block movements as deduced from drainage anomalies: the Yeşilırmak River Basin, northern Turkey. Geomorphol 246:634–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gürer ÖF, Sarıca-Filoreau N, Özburan M, Sanğu E, Doğan B (2009) Progressive development of the Büyük Menderes Graben based on new data, western Turkey. Geol Mag 146(5):652–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hubert-Ferrari A, Armijo R, King GCP, Meyer B, Barka A (2002) Morphology, displacement and slip rates along the North Anatolian fault (Turkey). J Geophys Res 107:1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hughes P, Woodward J (2017) Quaternary glaciation in the Mediterranean mountains: a new synthesis. In: Hughes P, Woodward J (eds) Quaternary Glaciation in the Mediterranean Region. Geological Society of London Special Publication 433. http://doi.org/10.1144/SP433.14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kayan İ (1999) Holocene stratigraphy and geomorphological evolution of the Aegean coastal plains of Anatolia. Quatern Sci Rev 18:541–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kayan İ (2001) Die troanische Landschaft. Geomorphologie und paläogeographische Rekonstruktion der Alluvialebenen. Troia. Traum und Wirklichkeit. Begleitband zur Ausstellung “Troia-Traum und Wirklichkeit”. Verlagsbüro Wais & Partner, Stuttgart, pp 309–314Google Scholar
  49. Kazancı N, Gürbüz A, Boyraz S (2011) Geology and evolution of the river Büyük Menderes, western Anatolia, Turkey. Geol Bull Turk 54, 1–2: 27–55 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  50. Ketin İ (1961) Über die magmatischen Erscheinungen in der Türkei. Bull Turk Geol Soc 7: 16–32Google Scholar
  51. Ketin İ (1966) Cambrian outcrops in southeastern Turkey and their comparison with the Cambrian of east Iran. Bull Mineral Explor Institute of Turkey 66:77–89 + 1 foldout tableGoogle Scholar
  52. Kıyak N, Erturaç M (2008) Luminescence ages of feldspar contaminated quartz from fluvial terrace sediments. Geochronometria 30(1):55–60 Google Scholar
  53. Kraft JC, Kayan I, Erol O (1980) Geomorphic reconstruction in the environs of ancient Troy. Science 209(4458):776–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kröner A, Şengör AMC (1989) Archean and Proterozoic ancestry in Late Precambrian to early Paleozoic crustal elements of southern Turkey as revealed by single zircon dating. Geol 18:1886–1990Google Scholar
  55. Le Pichon X, Şengör AMC, Kende J, İmren C, Henry P, Grall C, Karabulut H (2016) Propagation of a strike-slip boundary within an extensional environment: the westward propagation of the North Anatolian fault. Can J Earth Sci 53 (Burke and Dewey special issue): 1416–1439Google Scholar
  56. Lepetit P, Viereck L, Piper JDA, Sudo M, Gürel A, Çöpuroğlu I, Gruber M, Mayer B, Koch M, Tatar O, Gürsoy H (2014) 40Ar/39Ar dating of ignimbrites and plinian air-fall layers from Cappadocia, Central Turkey: implications to chronostratigraphic and Eastern Mediterranean palaeoenvironmental record. Chem Erde 74(3):471–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Louis H (1956) Die Entstehung der Poljen und ihre Stellung in der Karstabtragung auf Grund von Beobauchtingen im Taurus. Erdkunde 10:33–53Google Scholar
  58. McKenzie DP (1972) Active tectonics of the Mediterranean region. Geophys J R Astron Soc 30:109–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Monod O (1977) Recherches Géologiques dans le Taurus occidental au Sud de Beysehir (Turquie). PhD University, Paris Sud, OrsayGoogle Scholar
  60. Monod O, Kuzucuoğlu C, Okay A (2006) A Miocene paleovalley network in the western Taurus (Turkey). Turk J Earth Sci 15:1–23Google Scholar
  61. Müller J, Aydın A (2004) Rupture progression along discontinuous oblique fault sets: implications for the Karadere rupture segment of the 1999 İzmit earthquake, and future rupture in the Sea of Marmara. Tectonophys 391:283–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nazik A, Meriç E, Avşar N, Ünlü S, Esenli V, Gökasan E (2011) Possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the Late Quaternary: evidence from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey. Geo-Mar Lett 31:75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Öğrünç G, Gürbüz K, Nazik A (2000) Adana Baseni Üst Miyosen-Pliyosen istifinde “Messiniyen Tuzluluk Krizine” ait bulgular (Evidence of the Messinian Salinity Crisis in Upper Miocene-Pliocene sediments in the Adana Basin). Yerbilimleri 22:183–192 (In Turkish)Google Scholar
  64. Okay A (2008). Geology of Turkey: a synopsis. Anschnitt 21, 19–42Google Scholar
  65. Okay AI, Özgül N (1984). HP/LT metamorphism and the structure of the Alanya Massif, southern Turkey: an allochtonous composite tectonic sheet. In: Dixon JE, Robertson AHF (eds) The geological evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean. Geological Society Spec Publ 17, London, pp 429–439Google Scholar
  66. Öztürk MZ, Şimşek M, Şener MF, Utlu M (2018) GIS based analysis of doline density on Taurus mountains, Turkey. Environ Earth Sci 77:536.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7717-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pasquare G, Poli S, Vezzoli L, Zanchi A (1988) Continental arc volcanism and tectonic setting in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Tectonophys 146:217–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Penck W (1918) Die Tektonischen Grundzüge Westkleinasiens—Beiträge zur Anatolischen Gebirgsgeschichte auf Grund Eigener Reisen. J. Engelhorns Nachfolger, Stuttgart, VII + 120 ppGoogle Scholar
  69. Piper JDA, Koçbulut F, Gürsoy O, Tatar O, Vierek L, Lepetit P, Robets AP, Akpınar Z (2013) Palaeomagnetism of the Cappadocian volcanic succession, Central Turkey: major ignimbrite emplacement during two short (Miocene) episodes and Neogene tectonics of the Anatolian collage. J Volcanol Geotherm Research 262:47–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Poisson A (1977) Recherches Géologiques dans les Taurides occidentales (Turquie). Thèse Univ, Paris-Sud, Orsay, 795 pGoogle Scholar
  71. Roeser PA, Franz SO, Litt T, Ülgen UB, Hilgers A, Wulf S, Wennrich V, Akçer-Ön S, Viehberg FA, Cağatay N, Melles N (2012) Lithostratigraphic and geochronological framework for the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last 36 ka cal BP from a sediment record from Lake İznik (NW Turkey). Quatern Int 274:73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ryan WBF, Pitman WC, Major CO, Shimkus K, Moskalenko V, Jones GA, Dimitrov P, Görür N (1997) An abrupt drowning of the Black Sea. Mar Geol 138:119–126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(97)00007-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sarıkaya MA, Çiner A (2015) Late Pleistocene glaciations and paleoclimate of Turkey. Bull Miner Res Explor Institute (MTA) 151:107–127Google Scholar
  74. Sarıkaya MA, Çiner A (2017) The Late Quaternary glaciation in the Eastern Mediterranean. In: Hughes P, Woodward J (eds) Quaternary glaciation in the Mediterranean mountains. Geological Society of London Special Publication 433, pp 289–305. http://doi.org/10.1144/SP433.4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sarıkaya MA, Çiner A, Zreda M (2015) Fairy chimney erosion rates on Cappadocia ignimbrites, Turkey; insights from cosmogenic nuclides. Geomorphol 234:182–191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.12.039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sarp G, Gürboğa Ş, Toprak V, Düzgün Ş (2014) Tectonic history of Basins sited along the western section of the North Anatolian Fault System Turkey. J Afr Earth Sci 89:31–41 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schildgen TF, Cosentino D, Bookhagen B, Niedermann S, Yıldırım C, Echtler HP, Strecker MR (2012) Multi-phased uplift of the southern margin of the Central Anatolia plateau, Turkey: a record of tectonic and upper mantle processes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 317–318:85–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schildgen TF, Yıldırım C, Cosentino D, Strecker MR (2014) Linking slab break-off, Hellenic trench retreat, and uplift of the Central and Eastern Anatolian plateaus. Earth Sci Rev 128:147–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Selim HH (2013) Tectonics of the buried Kırklareli Fault, Thrace Region, NW Turkey. Quatern Int 312:120–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Şen Ş, Seyitoğlu G (2009) Magnetostratigraphy of early-middle Miocene deposits from E-W trending Alaşehir and Büyük Menderes grabens in western Turkey, and its tectonic implications. In: van Hinsbergen DJJ, Edwards MA, Govers R (eds) Geodynamics of collision and collapse at the Africa-Arabia-Eurasia subduction zone. Geological Society Sp. Pub. 311, London, UK, pp 321–342Google Scholar
  81. Şengör AMC (1975) Outlines of the Turkish Karst: Boğaziçi Univ. Speleol. Soc. Pub. No.1, İstanbul, 25 ppGoogle Scholar
  82. Şengör AMC (1980) Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Anatolia and surrounding regions. Bull Bur Rech Geol Miniéres, France 115–137Google Scholar
  83. Şengör AMC (1987) Cross-faults and differential stretching of hanging walls in regions of low-angle normal faulting: examples from western Turkey. Geol Soc London Spec Pub 28, pp 575–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Şengör AMC (1991) Timing of orogenic events: a persistent geological controversy. In: Müller DW, McKenzie JA, Weissert H (eds) Controversies in modern Geology—evolution of geological theories in sedimentology, earth history and tectonics. Academic Press, London, pp 405–473Google Scholar
  85. Şengör AMC (2011) İstanbul Boğazı niçin Boğaziçi’nde açılmıştır? [Why did the strait of İstanbul open in the Bosphorus?]. In Ekinci D (ed) Fiziki Coğrafya Araştırmaları, Sistematik ve Bölgesel (In Honour of Prof. Dr. Mehmet Yıldız Hoşgören). Pub. of the Turkish Association of Geography 6:57–102Google Scholar
  86. Şengör AMC (2017) Diversion of river courses across major strike-slip faults and keirogens. In: Çemen İ, Yilmaz Y (eds) Active global seismology: neotectonics and earthquake potential of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Geophysical Monograph Series. American Geophysical Union, pp 93–101.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118944998.ch3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Şengör AMC, Dyer J (1979) Neotectonic provinces of the Tethyan orogenic belt of the Eastern Mediterranean: variations in tectonic style and magmatism in a collision zone. EOS 60:390–417Google Scholar
  88. Şengör AMC, Kidd WSF (1979) The post-collisional tectonics of the Turkish-Iranian plateau and a comparison with Tibet. Tectonophys 55:361–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Şengör AMC, Özgül N (2010) İstanbul’un iklim ve jeolojisi [Geology and Climatology of İstanbul]: in İstanbul Ansiklopedisi. NTV Pub, İstanbul, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  90. Şengör AMC, Yılmaz Y (1981) Tethyan evolution of Turkey: a plate tectonic approach. Tectonophys 75:181–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Şengör AMC, Yılmaz Y, Ketin İ (1982) Remnants of a pre-late Jurassic Ocean in northern Turkey: fragments of Permo-Triassic Paleo-Tethys? Reply. Geol Soc America Bull 93:932–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Şengör AMC, Görür N, Şaroğlu F (1985) Strikeslip faulting and related Basin formation in zones of tectonic escape: Turkey as a case study. In: Biddle KT, Christie-Blick N (eds) Strike-slip deformation, Basin formation, and sedimentation. Soc. Econ. Paleontol. Miner. Spec. Publ. 37 (in honor of J.C. Crowell), pp 227–264Google Scholar
  93. Şengör AMC, Tüysüz O, İmren C, Sakınç M, Eyidoğan H, Görür N, Le Pichon X, Rangin C (2005) The North Anatolian fault: a new look. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 33:37–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Şengör AMC, Özeren MS, Keskin M, Sakınç M, Özbakır AD, Kayan İ (2008) Eastern Turkish high plateau as a small Turkic-type orogen: implications for post-collisional crust-forming processes in Turkic-type orogens. Earth Sci Rev 90:1–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Seyitoğlu G, Scott BC, Rundle CC (1992) Timing of Cenozoic extensional tectonics in west Turkey. J Geol Soc (London) 149:533–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stein RS, Barka AA, Dieterich JH (1997) Progressive failure on the North Anatolian fault since 1939 by earthquake stress triggering. Geophys J Int 128:594–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tarı U, Tüysüz O (2016) The effects of the North Anatolian fault on the geomorphology in the Eastern Marmara region, northwestern Turkey. Geodinamica Acta 28(3):139–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Türkecan A (2015) Türkiye Volkanitleri (The volcanics of Turkey), with 9 detailed maps of Turkish volcanic regions. MTA Pub, Ankara (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  99. Ülgen UB, Franz SO, Biltekin AD, Çağatay MN, Roeser PA, Doner L, Thein J (2012) Climatic and environmental evolution of Lake Iznik (NW Turkey) over the last 4700 years. Quatern Int 274:88–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vardar D, Öztürk K, Yaltırak C, Alpar B, Tur H (2014) Late Pleistocene-Holocene evolution of the southern Marmara shelf and sub-basins: middle strand of the North Anatolian fault, southern Marmara Sea. Turkey Mar Geophy Res 35(1):69–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Viehberg FA, Ülgen UM, Damcı E, Franz SO, Akçer Ön S, Roeser PA, Çağatay MN, Litt T, Melles M (2012) Seasonal hydrochemical changes and spatial sedimentological variations in Lake İznik (NW Turkey). Quatern Int 274:102–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Westaway R, Pringle M, Yurtmen S, Demir T, Bridgland D, Rowbotham G, Maddy D (2004) Pliocene and Quaternary regional uplift in western Turkey: the Gediz River terrace staircase and the volcanism at Kula. Tectonophys 391:121–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yaltırak C, Ülgen UB, Zabcı C, Franz SO, Akçer Ön S, Sakınç M, Cağatay MN, Alpar B, Öztürk K, Tunoğlu C, Ünlü S (2012) Discussion: a critique of Possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the Late Quaternary: evidence from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey. Geo-Mar Lett 32:267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Yılmaz Y (1990) Comparison of young volcanic associations of western and eastern Anatolia: review. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 44(1):69–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Yılmaz Y (2017) Morphotectonic development of Anatolia and its surrounding regions. In: Çemen İ, Yılmaz Y (eds) Active global seismology: neotectonics and earthquake potential of the eastern Mediterranean Region. Geophysical Monograph 225. American Geophysical Union, Wiley, pp 11–91Google Scholar
  106. Yılmaz Y, Şaroğlu F, Güner Y (1987) Initiation of the neomagmatism in east Anatolia. Tectonophysics 134:177–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Yılmaz Y, Genç, SC, Gürer O, Bozcu M, Yılmaz K, Karacık Z, Altunkaynak S, Elmas A (2000) When did the western Anatolian grabens begin to develop? In: Bozkurt E, Winchester B, Piper J (eds) Tectonics and magmatism in Turkey and the surrounding area. Geological Society Special Publication 173, London, pp 353–384Google Scholar
  108. Zwittkovits F (1966) Klimabedingte Karstformen in den Alpen, den Dinariden und im Taurus: Mitteilugen der Österreichischen Geographischen Gesellschaft 108(1):72–97Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catherine Kuzucuoğlu
    • 1
  • A. M. Celâl Şengör
    • 2
    • 3
  • Attila Çiner
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Physical Geography (LGP, UMR 8591)CNRS, Universities of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne and Paris 12 U-PecMeudonFrance
  2. 2.İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Avrasya Yerbilimleri EnstitüsüİstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Maden Fakültesi, Jeoloji BölümüİstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations