Advertisement

The Büyük Menderes River: Origin of Meandering Phenomenon

  • Alper GürbüzEmail author
  • Nizamettin Kazancı
Chapter
Part of the World Geomorphological Landscapes book series (WGLC)

Abstract

The Büyük Menderes River is the longest river that discharges into the Aegean Sea, with a length of 615 km. It is one of the main rivers dominating in the geomorphology of western Turkey, with its drainage basin that reaches to 24,000 km2. The river is also very important because of its meandering channel patterns. The term ‘meandering’ in geomorphology, architecture and art originates from the ancient name of this river: Maiandros. Its catchment area mainly consists of three courses located in the main grabens of the region. The upper course of the Büyük Menderes River is located in the Baklan-Dinar Graben, while the middle and lower courses are in the Denizli and Büyük Menderes grabens, respectively. The aim of this study is to describe the meandering channel features of this river in its current course from its source to its mouth, and related landforms and landscapes.

Keywords

Fluvial geomorphology Sinuosity ratio Maiandros Ulubey Canyon Western Anatolia Turkey 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to editors Attila Çiner, Catherine Kuzucuoğlu and series editor Piotr Migoń for their valuable comments that improved the quality of the manuscript significantly, and to Kevin McClain for revising the English of the text.

References

  1. Akgün F, Akyol E (1999) Palynostratigraphy of the coal-bearing Neogene deposits in Büyük Menderes graben, western Anatolia. Geobios 32:367–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aksu AE, Piper DJW, Konuk T (1987) Quaternary growth patterns of Büyük Menderes and Küçük Menderes deltas, western Turkey. Sed Geol 52:227–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babonneau N, Savoye B, Cremer M, Bez M (2010) Sedimentary architecture in meanders of a submarine channel: detailed study of the present Congo turbidite channel (zaingo project). J Sediment Res 80:852–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bozkurt E (2003) Origin of NNE-trending basins in western Turkey. Geodin Acta 6:61–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brückner H (1997) Coastal changes in western Turkey; rapid progradation in historical times. Bulletin de l’Institut Océanographique, Monaco 18:63–74 (In: Briand F, Maldonado A (eds) Transformations and evolution of the Mediterranean coastline)Google Scholar
  6. Brückner H, Müllenhoff M, Handl M, van der Borg K (2002) Holocene landscape evolution of the Büyük Menderes alluvial plain in the environs of Myous and Priene (Western Anatolia Turkey). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 127(Supplement Band):47–65Google Scholar
  7. EİE (1986) Türkiye akarsularında sediment gözlemleri ve sediment taşınım miktarları. Elektrik İşleri Etüd İdaresi Yayını, no: 86–61Google Scholar
  8. EİE (2006) Türkiye akarsularında asılı yük gözlemleri ve asılı sediment taşınım miktarları. Elektrik İşleri Etüd İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü, no: 93Google Scholar
  9. Einstein A (1926) Die Ursache der Mäanderbildung der Flußläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen Gesetzes. Die Naturwissenschaften 14(11):223–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ergin M, Kadir S, Keskin Ş, Turhan-Akyüz N, Yaşar D (2007) Late Quaternary climate and sea-level changes recorded in sediment composition off the Büyük Menderes River delta (eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey). Quatern Int 167(168):162–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Erinç S (1978) Changes in the physical environment in Turkey since the end of the last glacial. In: Brice WC (ed) The environmental history of the Near and Middle East since the last ice age. Academic Press, London, pp 45–58Google Scholar
  12. Erol O (1976) Quaternary shoreline changes on the Anatolian coasts of the Aegean Sea and related problems. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 2:459–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Erol O (1996) Photo-geomorhological study of the Büyük Menderes delta. Aegean Geomorhological J, İzmir, Turk 9:1–42Google Scholar
  14. Göney S (1973) Büyük Menderes deltası. İstanbul Üniversitesi Coğrafya Enstitüsü Dergisi 18(19):339–354Google Scholar
  15. Güneralp İ, Marston RA (2012) Process-form linkages in meander morphodynamics: bridging theoretical modeling and real world complexity. Prog Phys Geogr:1–29Google Scholar
  16. Güneralp İ, Rhoads BL (2008) Continuous characterization of the planform geometry and curvature of meandering rivers. Geogr Anal 40(1):1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Güneralp İ, Abad JD, Zolezzi G, Hooke J (2012) Advances and challenges in meandering channels research. Geomorphol 163–164:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gürbüz A, Boyraz S, Ismael MT (2012) Plio-Quaternary development of the Baklan-Dinar graben: implications for cross-graben formation in SW Turkey. Int Geol Rev 54(1):33–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gürer ÖF, Bozcu M, Yılmaz K, Yılmaz Y (2001) Neogene basin development around Söke-Kuşadası (Western Anatolia) and its bearing on tectonic development of the Aegean region. Geodin Acta 14:57–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gürer ÖF, Sarica-Filoreau N, Özburan M, Sangu E, Doğan B (2009) Progressive development of the Büyük Menderes Graben based on new data, western Turkey. Geol Mag 146:652–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hakyemez HY, Erkal T, Göktaş F (1999) Late Quaternary evolution of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens, western Anatolia, Turkey. Quatern Sci Rev 18:549–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Howard AD (2009) How to make a meandering river. PNAS 106(41):17245–17246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ikeda S, Parker G (eds) (1989) River meandering. Water resources monograph, 12. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 485 pGoogle Scholar
  24. Jansen P, Van Bendegom L, Van Den Berg J, de Vries M, Zanen A (1979) Principles of river engineering: the non-tidal alluvial river. Pitman, London, 509 pGoogle Scholar
  25. Kayan İ (1999) Holocene stratigraphy and geomorphological evolution of the Aegean coastal plains of Anatolia. Quatern Sci Rev 18:541–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaymakçı N (2006) Kinematic development and paleostress analysis of the Denizli Basin (Western Turkish): implications of spatial variation of relative paleostress magnitudes and orientations: J Asian Earth Sci 27:207–222Google Scholar
  27. Kazancı N, Dündar S, Alçiçek MC, Gürbüz A (2009) Quaternary deposits of the Büyük Menderes Graben in western Anatolia, Turkey; implications on a river capture and the longest Holocene estuary of the Aegean Sea. Mar Geol 264:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kazancı N, Gürbüz A, Boyraz S (2011) Büyük Menderes Nehri’nin Jeolojisi ve Evrimi, Batı Anadolu. Türkiye Jeoloji Bülteni 54(1–2):25–55Google Scholar
  29. Knipping M, Müllenhoff M, Brückner H (2008) Human induced landscape changes around Bafa Gölü (western Turkey). Veget Hist Archaeobot 17:365–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Koçyiğit A (2005) The Denizli graben-horst system and the eastern limit of the western Anatolian continental extension: Basin fill, structure, deformational mode, throw amount and episodic evolutionary history, SW Turkey. Geodinamica Acta 18:167–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kondolf GM (2006) River restoration and meanders. Ecol Soc 11(2):42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Langbein WB, Leopold LB (1966) River meanders—theory of minimum variance. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, Technical Report H422Google Scholar
  33. Leopold LB, Wolman MG (1960) River meanders. Geol Soc Am Bull 71:769–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Marriner N, Morhange C (2007) Geoscience of Mediterranean harbours. Earth Sci Rev 80:137–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Meakin P, Sun T, Jossang T, Schwarz K (1996) A simulation model for meandering rivers and their associated environments. Phys A 233:606–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Müllenhoff M, Handl M, Knipping M, Brückner H (2004) The evolution of Lake Bafa (Western Turkey)—sedimentological, microfaunal and palynological results. Coastline Rep 1:55–66 (In: Schernewski G, Dolch T (eds) Geographie der Meere und Küsten)Google Scholar
  37. Ocakoğlu F, Açıkalın S, Özsayın E, Dirik RK (2014) Tectonosedimentary evolution of the Karacasu and Bozdoğan basins in the Central Menderes Massif, W Anatolia. Turk J Earth Sci 23:361–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Özgür R (1982–83) Aydın-Germencik-Ortaklar dolayında genç tektoniğe bağlı jeomorfolojik gelişme. MTA Dergisi 99–100:142–147Google Scholar
  39. Purvis M, Robertson AHF (2005) Miocene sedimentary evolution of the NE-SW-trending Selendi and Gördes Basins, western Turkey: implications for extensional processes. Sediment Geol 174:31–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rojay B, Toprak V, Demirci C, Süzen ML (2005) Plio-Quaternary evolution of the Küçük Menderes graben (western Anatolia, Turkey). Geodin Acta 18:241–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Saraç G (2003) Türkiye omurgalı fosil yatakları. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü (MTA) Raporu, No: 10609, 208 p, Ankara, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  42. Sarıca N (2000) The Plio-Pleistocene age of Büyük Menderes and Gediz grabens and their tectonic significance on N-S extensional tectonics in west Anatolia: mammalian evidence from the continental deposits. Geol J 35:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schröder B, Bay B (1996) Late Holocene rapid coastal change in western Anatolia-Büyük Menderes plain as a case study. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, N.F. 102:61–70Google Scholar
  44. Şen Ş, Seyitoğlu G (2009) Magnetostratigraphy of early-middle Miocene deposits from EW trending Alaşehir and Büyük Menderes grabens in western Turkey, and its tectonic implications. In: van Hinsbergen DJJ, Edwards MA, Govers R (eds) Geodynamics of collision and collapse at the Africa–Arabia–Eurasia subduction zone, vol 311. Geological Society of London, Special Publications, pp 321–342Google Scholar
  45. Şengör AMC (1987) Cross-faults and differential stretching of hanging-walls in regions of low-angle normal faulting: example from Western Turkey. In: Coward MP, Dewey JF, Hancock PL (eds) Continental extensional tectonics, vol 28. Geological Society of London, London, Special Publications, pp 575–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Seyitoğlu G, Scott BC (1992) The age of the Büyük Menderes graben (west Turkey) and its tectonic implications. Geol Mag 129:239–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sözbilir H, Emre T (1990) Neogene stratigraphy and structure of the northern rim of the Büyük Menderes graben. In: International earth sciences congress on Aegean regions (IESCA–1990), proceedings, İzmir, Turkey, pp 314–322Google Scholar
  48. Sümer Ö, İnci U, Sözbilir H (2013) Tectonic evolution of the Söke Basin: extension dominated transtensional basin formation in western part of the Büyük Menderes Graben, Western Anatolia. Turkey J Geodynamics 65:148–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Swanson DC (1993) The importance of fluvial processes and related reservoir deposits. J Pet Technol:368–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. ten Veen JH, Boulton SJ, Alçiçek MC (2009) From palaeotectonics to neotectonics in the Neotethys realm: the importance of kinematic decoupling and inherited structural grain in SW Anatolia (Turkey). Tectonophys 473:261–281Google Scholar
  51. Twidale CR (2004) River patterns and their meaning. Earth Sci Rev 67:159–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ünay E, Göktaş F, Hakyemez M, Şan Ö (1995) Dating the sediments exposed at the northern part of the Büyük Menderes graben (Turkey) on the basis of Arvicolidae (Rodentia, Mammalia). Geol Bull Turk 38:63–68Google Scholar
  53. Weihaupt JG (1974) Possible origin and probable discharges of meandering channels on the planet Mars. J Geophys Res 79(14):2073–2076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Xu D, Bai YC, Ma JM, Tan Y (2011) Numerical investigation of longterm planform dynamics and stability of river meandering on fluvial floodplains. Geomorphol 132:195–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yılmaz Y, Genç SC, Gürer F, Bozcu M, Yılmaz K, Karacık Z, Altunkaynak S, Elmas A (2000) When did the western Anatolian grabens begin to develop? J Geol Soc Lond 173:353–384Google Scholar
  56. Yönlü Ö, Altunel E, Karabacak V, Akyüz S, Yalçıner Ç (2010) Offset archaeological relics in the western part of the Büyük Menderes graben (western Turkey) and their tectonic implications. GSA Spec Pap 471:269–279Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Niğde Ömer Halisdemir Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği BölümüNiğdeTurkey
  2. 2.Ankara Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Jeoloji Mühendisliği BölümüGölbaşı, AnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations