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Landscape Development of the Eşen Valley and Delta Plain (Letoôn and Patara Sites)

  • Ertuğ ÖnerEmail author
Chapter
Part of the World Geomorphological Landscapes book series (WGLC)

Abstract

The Eşen valley lies in a graben extending north–south in the south-west of Anatolia. Ca. 50 km long, it opens south to the Mediterranean Sea. Surrounding mountain slopes consist generally of carbonate rocks. They produce a large amount of coarse alluvium deposited in the main valleys by braided channels. During the Neogene, a lake occupied the graben. In the late Pliocene and the Pleistocene, the uplift of the region resulted in the river meanders incising a low plateau. In south of a narrow gorge (Kınık gorge), the Eşen River discharges to the Mediterranean Sea through a wide delta plain. Core studies revealed that the rapidly rising sea covered most of the present delta area during the middle Holocene. After the sea level maximum reached during the middle Holocene (ca. 7–6 ka BC), prograding dynamics led to the formation of the present delta plain which reached its final morphological configuration during the recent millennia. Since the ancient times, the Eşen delta has been an important settlement area, with the Xanthos, Letoôn and antic harbour city Patara being the best-known ancient settlements in the delta. These and other ancient sites have been influenced by environmental changes during the late Holocene.

Keywords

Xanthos Letoôn Patara Eşen River Holocene Turkey 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyEge UniversityİzmirTurkey

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