HIV–HBV and HIV–HCV Coinfection and Liver Cancer Development

  • Jianming HuEmail author
  • Kuancheng Liu
  • Jun Luo
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 177)


Liver diseases that are caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), have become increasingly important in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as their life expectancy is getting longer with successful anti-HIV therapy. Due to their shared transmission routes, dual infection by HIV and HBV or HIV and HCV, and triple infection by all three viruses are fairly common and affect millions of people worldwide. Whereas the immunodeficiency caused by HIV enhances the likelihood of HBV and HCV persistence, hepatotoxicity associated with anti-HIV therapy can worsen the liver diseases associated with HBV or HCV persistence. Evidence suggests HIV infection increases the risk of HBV- or HCV-associated HCC risk although the precise mechanisms of enhanced hepatocarcinogenesis remain to be fully elucidated. Recent success in curing HCV infection, and the availability of therapeutic options effective in long-term suppression of both HIV and HBV replication, bring hope, fortunately, to those who are coinfected but also highlight the need for judicious selection of antiviral therapies.


Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis C virus Human immunodeficiency virus HBV HCV HIV Hepatocellular carcinoma HCC Coinfection 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyThe Pennsylvania State University College of MedicineHersheyUSA

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