Advertisement

Mobbed-Up, Corrupt or Crimilegal Orders?

  • Markus Schultze-Kraft
Chapter

Abstract

The concept of crimilegality entails a critique of conventional scholarship on organised crime and corruption. In crimilegal orders, which are hybrid political orders, the orchestration of crimes unfolds dynamically and in constant interaction among a range of state and non-state actors along the crimilegality-crimilegitimacy spectrum. Crimilegal orders are therefore neither (fragile) mafia states nor mobbed-up or corrupt neopatrimonial orders. In crimilegal orders, the central issue is not one of the encroachments of organised criminal structures and activities on the state through corruption and intimidation and violence. Rather, the key issue is the degree to which it is considered socially legitimate and morally acceptable to partake in unlawful interactions.

Keywords

Crimilegal order Hybrid political order Crimilegality-crimilegitimacy spectrum Organised crime Corruption 

References

  1. Albarracín, Juan. “Criminalized Electoral Politics in Brazilian Urban Peripheries.” Crime, Law and Social Change 69, no. 4 (2017): 553–75.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-017-9761-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allum, Felia, and Stan Gilmour. “Introduction.” In The Routledge Handbook on Transnational Organized Crime, edited by Felia Allum and Stan Gilmour, 1–16. London and New York: Routledge, 2012.Google Scholar
  3. Altman, David, and Juan Luna. “Introducción: el Estado latinoamericano en su laberinto.” Revista de Ciencia Política 32, no. 2 (2012): 521–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-090X2012000300001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arias, Enrique Desmond. “The Dynamics of Criminal Governance: Networks and Social Order in Rio de Janeiro.” Journal of Latin American Studies 38, no. 2 (2006): 293–325.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022216X06000721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ———. Criminal Enterprises and Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.Google Scholar
  6. Arjona, Ana. “Wartime Institutions: A Research Agenda.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 58, no. 8 (2014): 1360–89.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002714547904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arjona, Ana, Nelson Kasfir, and Zachariah Mampilly, eds. Rebel Governance in Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.Google Scholar
  8. Bailey, John, and Matthew Taylor. “Evade, Corrupt, or Confront? Organized Crime and the State in Brazil and Mexico.” Journal of Politics in Latin America 1, no. 2 (2009): 3–29.Google Scholar
  9. Barak, Gregg. “Introduction: On the Invisibility and Neutralization of the Crimes of the Powerful and Their Victims.” In The Routledge International Handbook of the Crimes of the Powerful, edited by Gregg Barak, 1–35. London and New York: Routledge, 2015.Google Scholar
  10. Barnes, Nicholas. “Criminal Politics: An Integrated Approach to the Study of Organized Crime, Politics, and Violence.” Perspectives on Politics 15, no. 4 (2017): 967–87.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592717002110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bayart, Jean-Francois, Stephen Ellis, and Beatriz Hibou. The Criminalization of the State in Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  12. Beare, Margaret. “Corruption and Organized Crime: Lessons from History.” Crime, Law and Social Change 28, no. 2 (1997): 155–72.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008220609526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benjamin, Walter. Selected Writings: Volume 1, 1913–1926. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  14. Bhargava, Vitay. “Curing the Cancer of Corruption.” In Global Issues for Global Citizens, edited by Vitay Bhargava, 341–70. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2006.Google Scholar
  15. Blok, Anton. “History and the Study of Organized Crime.” Urban Life 6, no. 4 (1978): 455–74.  https://doi.org/10.1177/089124167800600404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boege, Volker, Anne Brown, Keving Clements, and Anna Nolan. On Hybrid Political Orders and Emerging States: What Is Failing—States in the Global South or Research and Politics in the West? Berlin: Berghof Research Centre for Constructive Conflict Management, 2009. Accessed August 8, 2018. https://www.berghof-foundation.org/fileadmin/redaktion/Publications/Handbook/Dialogue_Chapters/dialogue8_boegeetal_lead.pdf.
  17. Börzel, Tanja, and Thomas Risse. “Governance Without a State: Can It Work?” Regulation & Governance 4, no. 2 (2010): 113–34.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5991.2010.01076.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Briscoe, Ivan, and Pamela Kalkman. The New Criminal Powers. The Spread of Illicit Links to Politics Across the World and How It Can Be Tackled. CRU Report. The Hague: Clingendael Institute, 2016. Accessed August 8, 2018. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/the_new_criminal_powers.pdf.
  19. Brock, Lothar, Hans-Henrik Holm, Georg Sorensen, and Michael Stohl. Fragile States. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2012.Google Scholar
  20. Brooks, Graham. Criminology of Corruption. Theoretical Approaches. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chambliss, William. “State-Organized Crime.” Criminology 27, no. 2 (1989): 183–208.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1989.tb01028.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Christophe, Barbara. “Transformation als Inszenierung. Zur institutionellen und kulturellen Einbettung von Korruption in Georgien.” In: Kultur als Bestimmungsfaktor der Transformation im Osten Europas, edited by Hans-Hermann Höhmann, 157–77. Bremen: Edition Temmen, 2001.Google Scholar
  23. Cockayne, James. “Chasing Shadows.” The RUSI Journal 158, no. 2 (2013): 10–24.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03071847.2013.787729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cohen, Stanley. “Crime and Politics: Spot the Difference!” The British Journal of Sociology 47, no. 1 (1996): 1–21.  https://doi.org/10.2307/591113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Costa, Antonio. “The Economics of Crime: A Discipline to Be Invented and a Nobel Prize to Be Awarded.” Journal of Policy Modeling 32, no. 5 (2010): 648–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpolmod.2010.07.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Della Porta, Donatella. “Foreword.” In The Routledge Handbook of Transnational Organized Crime, edited by Felia Allum and Stan Gilmour, xiii–xiv. London and New York: Routledge, 2012.Google Scholar
  27. Dewey, Matías. El orden clandestino. Política, fuerzas de seguridad y mercados ilegales en la Argentina. Buenos Aires: Katz Editores, 2015.Google Scholar
  28. ———. “State Power and Crime.” In The Sage Handbook of Political Sociology, edited by William Outwhaite and Stephen Turner. Los Angeles: Sage, 2018.Google Scholar
  29. Dewey, Matías, Daniel Míguez, and Marcelo Saín. “The Strength of Collusion: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Hybrid Social Orders.” Current Sociology 65, no. 3 (2015): 395–410.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0011392116661226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Di John, Jonathan. “Conceptualising the Causes and Consequences of Failed States: A Critical Review of the Literature.” Crisis States Working Paper Series No. 25, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, 2008. Accessed August 8, 2018. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/57427/wp25.2.pdf.
  31. Dudley, Steven. “Public Security in Private Hands: The Case of Guatemala’s Carlos Vielman.” Crime, Law & Social Change 69, no. 4 (2017): 519–31.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-017-9762-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Duncan, Gustavo. Los señores de la guerra: de paramilitares, mafiosos y autodefensas en Colombia. Bogotá: Planeta, 2006.Google Scholar
  33. ———. “Una lectura política de Pablo Escobar.” Revista Co-herencia 10, no. 19 (2013): 235–62.Google Scholar
  34. ———. “Drug Trafficking and Political Power: Oligopolies of Coercion in Colombia and Mexico.” Latin American Perspectives 195, no. 41/2 (2014a): 18–42.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X13509071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. ———. Más que plata o plomo. El poder del narcotráfico en Colombia y México. Bogotá: Random House, 2014b.Google Scholar
  36. Duyne, Petrus, Klaus von Lampe, and Nikos Passas, eds. Upperworld and Underworld in Cross-Border Crime. Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers, 2002.Google Scholar
  37. Edwards, Adam, and Michael Levi. “Researching the Organization of Serious Crime.” Criminology and Criminal Justice 8, no. 4 (2008): 363–88.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1748895808097403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Edwards, Adam, and Peter Gill, eds. Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security. London and New York: Routledge, 2003.Google Scholar
  39. Ellis, Stephen, and Mark Shaw. “Does Organized Crime Exist in Africa?” African Affairs 114, no. 457 (2015): 505–28.  https://doi.org/10.1093/afraf/adv035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Felson, Marcus. “The Ecosystem of Organized Crime.” HEUNI 25th Anniversary Lecture, Helsinki, 2006. http://www.heuni.fi/material/attachments/heuni/papers/6Ktmwqur9/HEUNI_papers_26.pdf.
  41. Fukuyama, Francis. State Building: Governance and World Order in the Twenty-First Century. London: Profile Books, 2005.Google Scholar
  42. Galeotti, Mark. Global Crime Today: The Changing Face of Organised Crime. London: Routledge, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gallie, W. B. “Essentially Contested Concepts.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, New Series, 56 (1956): 167–98.Google Scholar
  44. Gambetta, Diego. The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  45. Garay-Salamanca, Luis, and Eduardo Salcedo-Albarán. “Institutional Impact of Criminal Networks in Colombia and Mexico.” Crime, Law & Social Change 57, no. 2 (2012): 177–94.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-011-9338-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Glenny, Misha. McMafia: Seriously Organized Crime. London: Vintage, 2008.Google Scholar
  47. Godson, Roy. “Crisis of Governance: Devising Strategy to Counter International Organized Crime.” Terrorism and Political Violence 6, no. 2 (1994): 163–77.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09546559408427252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Heine, Jorge, and Ramesh Thakur, eds. The Dark Side of Globalization. New York: United Nations University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  49. Hellmann, Ollie. “The Historical Origins of Corruption in the Developing World: A Comparative Analysis of East Asia.” Crime, Law and Social Change 68, no. 1–2 (2017): 145–65.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-016-9679-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hobsbawm, Eric. Bandits. London: Abacus, 2000.Google Scholar
  51. Holmes, Leslie. Advanced Introduction to Organized Crime. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016.Google Scholar
  52. Kaldor, Mary. New and Old Wars. Organized Violence in a Global Era. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2012.Google Scholar
  53. Kleemans, Edward. “Organized Crime and the Visible Hand: A Theoretical Critique on the Economic Analysis of Organized Crime.” Criminology & Criminal Justice 13, no. 5 (2012): 615–29.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1748895812465296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Koechlin, Lucy. Corruption as an Empty Signifier. Politics and Political Order in Africa. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2013.Google Scholar
  55. Krauthausen, Ciro. Moderne Gewalten. Organisierte Kriminalität in Kolumbien und Italien. Frankfurt and New York: Campus Verlag, 2013.Google Scholar
  56. Kupatadze, Alexander. “Organized Crime Before and After the Tulip Revolution: The Changing Dynamics of Underworld-Upperworld Networks.” Central Asian Survey 27, no. 3–4 (2008): 279–99.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02634930802560449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Levi, Michael. “Thinking About Organised Crime.” The RUSI Journal 159, no. 1 (2014): 6–14.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03071847.2014.895253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lupo, Salvatore. Historia de la mafia: desde sus orígenes hasta nuestros días. Mexico, DF: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2009.Google Scholar
  59. Lupsha, Peter. “Transnational Organized Crime Versus the Nation-State.” Transnational Organized Crime 2, no. 1 (1996): 21–48.Google Scholar
  60. MacCarthy, Dennis. An Economic History of Organized Crime. London: Routledge, 2011.Google Scholar
  61. Mampilly, Zachariah. Rebel Rulers: Insurgent Governance and Civilian Life During War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  62. Mann, Michael. “Nation-States in Europe and Other Continents: Diversifying, Developing, Not Dying.” Daedalus 122, no. 3 (1993): 115–40. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20027185.
  63. Mayntz, Renate. “Illegal Markets. Boundaries and Interfaces Between Legality and Illegality.” Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies Discussion Paper 16/4, 2016. Accessed August 8, 2018. http://www.mpi-fg-koeln.mpg.de/pu/mpifg_dp/dp16–4.pdf.
  64. Moriconi, Marcelo. “Reframing Illegalities: Crime, Cultural Values and Ideas of Success (in Argentina).” Crime, Law & Social Change 69, no. 4 (2017): 497–518.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-017-9760-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Naím, Moisés. Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers and Copycats Are Hijacking the Global Economy. New York: Doubleday, 2005.Google Scholar
  66. ———. “Mafia States.” Foreign Affairs 91, no. 3 (2012): 100–11.Google Scholar
  67. Naylor, Thomas. “From Cold War to Crime War: The Search for a New ‘National Security’ Threat.” Transnational Organized Crime 1, no. 4 (1995): 37–56.Google Scholar
  68. Paoli, Letizia. “Italian Organised Crime: Mafia Associations and Criminal Enterprises.” Global Crime 6, no. 1 (2004): 19–31.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1744057042000297954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Philp, Mark. “Defining Political Corruption.” Political Studies 45, no. 3 (1997): 436–62.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9248.00090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pietschmann, Thomas, and John Walker. Estimating Illicit Financial Flows Resulting from Drug Trafficking and Other Transnational Organized Crimes. Vienna: UNODC, 2011. Accessed August 8, 2018. https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/Studies/Illicit_financial_flows_2011_web.pdf.
  71. Reno, William. “Illicit Commerce in Peripheral States.” In Crime and the Global Political Economy, edited by Richard Friman, 67–84. London: Lynne Rienner, 2009a.Google Scholar
  72. ———. “Understanding Criminality in West African Conflicts.” International Peacekeeping 16, no. 1 (2009b): 47–61.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13533310802485542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Richmond, Oliver. Failed Statebuilding: Intervention, the State and the Dynamics of Peace Formation. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2014.Google Scholar
  74. Risse, Thomas. “Governance in Areas of Limited Statehood: Introduction and Overview.” In Governance Without a State? Policies and Politics in Areas of Limited Statehood, edited by Thomas Risse, 1–38. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  75. Rouquié, Alain. América Latina: Introducción al Extremo Occidente. México, DF: Siglo XXI Editores, 1989.Google Scholar
  76. Routley, Laura. Negotiating Corruption: NGOs, Governance and Hybridity in West Africa. London and New York: Routledge, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ruggiero, Vincenzo, and Michael Welch. “Power Crime.” Crime, Law and Social Change 51, no. 3–4 (2009): 303–25.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-008-9162-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ruggiero, Vincenzo. “Introduction: The Organization of Crime.” In Corruption and Organized Crime in Europe, edited by Philip Gounev and Vincenzo Ruggiero, 3–14. Abington: Routledge, 2012.Google Scholar
  79. Schultze-Kraft, Markus. Getting Real About an Illicit ‘External Stressor’: Transnational Cocaine Trafficking Through West Africa. IDS Evidence Report No. 72, Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, 2014. Accessed: August 8, 2018. https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/123456789/3966.
  80. ———. “Órdenes crimilegales: repensando el poder político del crimen organizado.” Íconos. Revista de Ciencias Sociales 55 (2016): 25–44.  https://doi.org/10.17141/iconos.55.2016.1899.
  81. ———. “Understanding Organised Violence and Crime in Political Settlements: Oil Wars, Petro-Criminality and Amnesty in the Niger Delta.” Journal of International Development 29, no. 5 (2017a): 613–27.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.3287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. ———. “Friedensschaffung durch Enflechtung von Herrschaftsordnung und organisierter Kriminalität? – Ein Deutungsversuch des kolumbianischen Friedensprozesses unter Anwendung des Konzepts der krimilegalen Aushandlung.” Monatsschrift für Kriminologie und Strafrechtsreform 100, no. 5 (2017b): 344–59.  https://doi.org/10.1515/mkr-2017-1000504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. ———. “Making Peace in Seas of Crime: Crimilegal Order and Armed Conflict Termination in Colombia.” Crime, Law and Social Change 69, no. 4 (2018): 475–96.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-017-9759-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schultze-Kraft, Markus, and Scott Hinkle. Toward Effective Violence Mitigation: Transforming Political Settlements. IDS Evidence Report No. 101. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, 2014. Accessed August 8, 2018. https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/handle/123456789/5367.
  85. Schultze-Kraft, Markus, Fernando Chinchilla, and Marcelo Moriconi. “New Perspectives on Crime, Violence and Insecurity in Latin America.” Crime, Law and Social Change 69, no. 4 (2018): 465–73.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-017-9758-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schuppert, Gunnar Folke. Der Rechsstaat unter den Bedingungen infromaler Staatlichkeit. Beobachtungen und Überlegungen zum Verhältnis formeller und informeller Institutionen. Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2011a.Google Scholar
  87. Schuppert, Gunnar Folke. “Law Without a State?” In Governance Without a State? Policies and Politics in Areas of Limited Statehood, edited by Thomas Risse, 65–86. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011b.Google Scholar
  88. Shelley, Louise. “Transnational Organized Crime: An Imminent Threat to the Nation-State?” Journal of International Affairs 48, no. 2 (1995): 463–89. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24357599.
  89. Skaperdas, Stergios. “The Political Economy of Organized Crime: Providing Protection Where the State Does Not.” Economics of Governance 2, no. 3 (2001): 173–202.  https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00011026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Smith, Daniel. A Culture of Corruption: Everyday Deception and Popular Discontent in Nigeria. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2007.Google Scholar
  91. Smith, Dwight. “Paragons, Pariahs, and Pirates: A Spectrum-Based Theory of Enterprise.” Crime & Delinquency 26, no. 3 (1980): 358–85.  https://doi.org/10.1177/001112878002600306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Solis, Luis, and Francisco Rojas, eds. Crimen organizado en América Latina. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Catalonia, 2008.Google Scholar
  93. Staniland, Paul. “States, Insurgents and Wartime Political Orders.” Perspectives on Politics 10, no. 2 (2011): 243–64.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592712000655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sterling, Claire. Thieves’ World: The Threat of the New Global Network of Organized Crime. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.Google Scholar
  95. Terpstra, Niels, and Georg Frerks. “Rebel Governance and Legitimacy: Understanding the Impact of Rebel Legitimation on Civilian Compliance with the LTTE Rule.” Civil Wars 19, no. 3 (2017): 279–307.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13698249.2017.1393265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Transparency International. “What Is Corruption?” Transparency International. Accessed August 8, 2018. https://www.transparency.org/what-is-corruption.
  97. Tom Vander Beken. “The Many Faces of Organized Crime in Europe, and Its Assessment.” In The Routledge Handbook on Transnational Organized Crime, edited by Felia Allum and Stan Gilmour, 83–96. London and New York: Routledge, 2012.Google Scholar
  98. UNODC. Transnational Organised Crime in the West African Region. Vienna: UNODC, 2005. Accessed August 8, 2018. https://www.unodc.org/pdf/transnational_crime_west-africa-05.pdf.
  99. ———. Crime and Instability: Case Studies of Transnational Threats. Vienna: UNODC, 2010. Accessed August 8, 2018. https://www.unodc.org/documents/frontpage/Crime_and_instability_2010_final_low_res.pdf.
  100. Varese, Federico. “What Is Organized Crime?” In Organized Crime: Critical Concepts in Criminology, edited by Federico Varese, 1–35. London: Routledge, 2010.Google Scholar
  101. Virgolini, Julio. Los delitos de cuello blanco: inmunidades y exclusión del derecho en la construcción del problema criminal. Buenos Aires: Editores del Puerto, 2004.Google Scholar
  102. von Alemann, Ulrich. “Politische Korruption: Ein Wegweiser zum Stand der Forschung.” In Dimensionen politischer Korruption, edited by Ulrich von Alemann. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. von Lampe, Klaus. “Not a Process of Enlightenment: The Conceptual History of Organized Crime in Germany and the United States of America.” In Forum on Crime and Society, edited by Pino Arlacchi (vol. 1, no. 2), 99–116. New York: United Nations, 2001.Google Scholar
  104. ———. Organized Crime. Analyzing Illegal Activities, Criminal Structures, and Extra-Legal Governance. Los Angeles: Sage, 2016.Google Scholar
  105. Williams, Phil. “Transnational Criminal Organizations: Strategic Alliances.” The Washington Quarterly 18, no. 1 (1995): 57–72.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01636609509550132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Williams, Phil, and Gregory Baudin-O’Hayon. “Global Governance, Transnational Organized Crime and Money Laundering.” In Governing Globalization: Power, Authority and Global Governance, edited by David Held and Anthony McGrew, 127–44. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2002.Google Scholar
  107. Williams, Phil, and Vanda Felbab-Brown. Drug Trafficking, Violence, and Instability. Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute, 2012.Google Scholar
  108. Wilson, Eric. 2009. “Deconstructing the Shadows.” In Government of the Shadows: Parapolitics and Criminal Sovereignty, edited by Eric Wilson, 13–55. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  109. Woodiwiss, Michael. “Organized Crime: The Dumbing Down of Discourse.” British Criminology Conference: Selected Proceedings 3 (2000): 1–10.Google Scholar
  110. World Bank. World Development Report 2011. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2011.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Schultze-Kraft
    • 1
  1. 1.Universidad IcesiCaliColombia

Personalised recommendations