Advertisement

Using Workforce Inter-Personnel Diversity as a Unique Talent Management System Component

  • Claretha HughesEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

To develop employees in the workplace, the employee, the organizational leaders, and the HRD professionals must all believe that the employee has potential. To motivate a diverse workforce with different KSAs within the organizational culture, the focus should not only be upon the differences in various protected class categories but also on how to capitalize on these dissimilarities by building bridges upon or over them using workforce inter-personnel diversity strategies. This book asks organizational leaders, and HRM and HRD professionals to look at talent management from the workforce inter-personnel diversity perspective. They can consider developing all employees by position and still accommodate high potential employees. Workforce inter-personnel diversity as a component of a talent management system must be evaluated and sustained to remain a viable tool for leaders and employees in the workplace. Managing workforce inter-personnel diversity requires forward-thinking approaches including establishing unity among employees, valuing employees’ qualifications, training and developing employees, supporting employee self-development, providing career pathways and management systems that support the pathways, and valuing employees’ time. Organizational leaders’ diversity intelligence (DQ), and acknowledgment and understanding of all employees provides them with the workforce inter-personnel diversity knowledge to enhance and improve organizational performance. Five aspects of a talent management system are aligned with workforce inter-personnel diversity initiatives.

References

  1. Abbott, A., & Collins, D. (2004). Eliminating the dichotomy between theory and practice in talent identification and development: Considering the role of psychology. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22, 395–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong’s handbook of human resource management practice. London, UK: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  3. ATD Staff. (2009). How do you define talent management? Retrieved from https://www.td.org/insights/how-do-you-define-talent-management.
  4. Avery, D. R. (2011). Support for diversity in organizations: A theoretical exploration of its origins and offshoots. Organizational Psychology Review, 1, 239–256.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2041386611402115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banks, C. H. (2002). A descriptive analysis of the perceived effectiveness of Virginia Tech’s faculty development institute. Dissertation Abstracts International, 64(08) (UMI No. 3102585).Google Scholar
  6. Banks, C. H. (2006). Career planning: Toward an inclusive model. In M. Karsten (Ed.), Gender, race and ethnicity in the workplace (Vol. 3, pp. 99–116). Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  7. Baruch, Y., & Peiperl, M. (2000). Career management practices: An empirical survey and explanations. Human Resource Management, 39, 347–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Becker, B. E., & Huselid, M. A. (2006). Strategic human resources management: Where do we go from here. Journal of Management, 32, 898–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Becker, B. E., Huselid, M. A., & Beatty, R. W. (2009). The differentiated workforce: Transforming talent into strategic impact. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bem, D. J. (1972). Self-perception theory. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental and social psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 1–62). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Benson, G. S., Finegold, D., & Mohrman, S. A. (2004). You paid for the skills, now keep them: Tuition reimbursement and voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 315–331.Google Scholar
  12. Bingham, K., Gewin, A., Hu, C., Thomas, K., & Yanchus, N. (2005). The roles of protégé race, gender, and proactive socialization attempts on peer monitoring. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(4), 540–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Biswas-Diener, R., Kashdan, T. B., & Minhas, G. (2011). A dynamic approach to psychological strength development and intervention. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(2), 106–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boudreaux, M. A. (2001). Career development: What is its role in human resource development? In O. A. Aliaga (Ed.), Academy of HRD 2001 conference proceedings (pp. 805–812). Bowling Green, OH: Academy of Human Resource Development.Google Scholar
  15. Boyatzis, R. E. (2008). Competencies in the 21st century. The Journal of Management Development, 27, 5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Briscoe, J. P., & Hall, D. T. (1999). Grooming and picking leaders using competency frameworks: Do they work? An alternative approach and new guidelines for practice. Organizational Dynamics, 28, 37–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1993). Heredity, environment, and the question ‘how’? A first approximation. In R. Plomin & G. E. McClearn (Eds.), Nature, nurture & psychology (pp. 313–324). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Browell, S. (2000). Staff development and professional education: A cooperative model. Journal of Workplace Learning: Employee Counseling Today, 12(2), 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buckingham, M. (2005). What great managers do. Harvard Business Review, 83(3), 70–79.Google Scholar
  20. Buckingham, M., & Vosburgh, R. (2001). The 21st century human resources function: It’s the talent, stupid. Human Resource Planning, 24(4), 17–23.Google Scholar
  21. Capelli, P. (2008). Talent management for the twenty-first century. Harvard Business Review, 86(3), 74–81.Google Scholar
  22. Campbell, J. P. (1990). Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. In. M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 687–732). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  23. Campion, M. A., Fink, A. A., Ruggeberg, B. J., Carr, L., Phillips, G. M., & Odman, R. B. (2011). Doing competencies well: Best practices in competency modeling. Personnel Psychology, 64, 225–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carrell, M., Mann, E., & Honeycutt-Sigler, T. (2006). Defining workforce diversity programs and practices in organizations: A longitudinal study. Labor Law Journal, 57(1), 5–12.Google Scholar
  25. Cascio, W. F. (1998). Applied psychology in human resource management (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  26. Ceci, S. J., Barnett, S. M., & Kanaya, T. (2003). Developing childhood proclivities into adult competencies: The overlooked multiplier effect. In R. J. Sternberg & E. L. Grigorenko (Eds.), The psychology of abilities, competencies, and expertise (pp. 70–92). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chambers, E. G., Foulon, M., Handfield-Jones, H., Hankin, S. M., & Michaels, E. G., III. (1998). The war for talent. The McKinsey Quarterly, 1(3), 44–58.Google Scholar
  28. CIPD. (2018). CIPD fact sheet. Retrieved October 27, 2018, from https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/strategy/resourcing/talent-factsheet.
  29. Connley, C. (2018). Google, Apple and 12 other companies that no longer require employees to have a college degree. Retrieved November 8, 2018, from https://www.cnbc.com/2018/08/16/15-companies-that-no-longer-require-employees-to-have-a-college-degree.html.
  30. De Janasz, S. C., Sullivan, S. E., Whiting, V., & Biech, E. (2003). Mentor networks and career success: Lessons for turbulent times [and executive commentary]. The Academy of Management Executive (1993–2005), 17(4), 78–93.Google Scholar
  31. Deal, T., & Kennedy, A. (1984). Corporate cultures. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  32. Delery, J. E. (1998). Issues of fit in strategic human resource management: Implications for research. Human Resource Management Review, 8, 289–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. DeVos, A., & Dries, N. (2013). Applying a talent management lens to career management: The role of human capital composition and continuity. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24, 1816–1831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dreher, G. F., & Dougherty, T. W. (1997). Substitutes for career mentoring: Promoting equal opportunity through career management and assessment systems. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51(1), 110–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dries, N., & Pepermans, R. (2007). Using emotional intelligence to identify high potential: A metacompetency perspective. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 28, 749–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dries, N., & Pepermans, R. (2008). ‘Real’ high-potential careers: An empirical study into the perspectives of organisations and high potentials. Personnel Review, 37(1), 85–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dries, N., Vantilborgh, T., & Pepermans, R. (2012). The role of learning agility and career variety in the identification and development of high potential employees. Personnel Review, 41, 340–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dychtwald, K., Erickson, T. J., & Morison, R. (2006). Workforce crisis: How to beat the coming shortage of skills and talent. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  39. Folger, R., & Greenberg, J. (1985). Procedural justice: An interpretive analysis of personnel systems. Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 3, 141–183.Google Scholar
  40. Forrier, A., & Sels, L. (2003). The concept employability: A complex mosaic. International Journal of Human Resource Development and Management, 3(2), 102–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Friedman, T. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2011). That used to be us: How America fell behind in the world it invented and how we can come back. New York, NY: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux.Google Scholar
  42. Garden, C. (2017). Disrupting work law: Arbitration in the gig economy. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 2017(9), 205–234.Google Scholar
  43. Garrick, J., & Usher, R. (2000). Flexible learning, contemporary work and enterprising selves. Electronic Journal of Sociology, 5(1), 1–15.Google Scholar
  44. Gelens, J., Dries, N., Hofmans, J., & Pepermans, R. (2013). The role of perceived organizational justice in shaping the outcomes of talent management: A research agenda. Human Resource Management Review, 23, 341–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ghosh, R., Reio, T. G., Jr., & Haynes, R. K. (2012). Mentoring and organizational citizenship behavior: Estimating the mediating effects of organization-based self-esteem and affective commitment. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 23(1), 41–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gilley, J. W., Eggland, S. A., & Gilley, A. M. (2002). Principles of human resource development (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.Google Scholar
  47. Gilley, J. W., & Maycunich, A. (2000). Organizational learning performance and change: An introduction to strategic human resource development. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.Google Scholar
  48. Gosney, M., & Hughes, C. (2015). The history of human resource development: Understanding the unexplored philosophies, theories and methodologies. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  49. Hall, D. T. (1984). Human resource development and organizational effectiveness. In D. Fombrun, M. A. Tichy, & M. A. Devanna, (Eds.), Strategic human resource management (pp. 159–181). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  50. Hall, R. (1992). The strategic analysis of intangible resources. Strategic Management Journal, 13(2), 135–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Harvey, L. (2010). Defining and measuring employability. Quality in Higher Education, 7(2), 97–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hayes, K. H. (2000). Managing career transitions: Your career as a work in progress (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  53. Hennequin, E. (2007). What “career success” means to blue-collar workers. Career Development International, 12, 565–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hoge, M. A., Tondora, J., & Marrelli, A. F. (2005). The fundamentals of workforce competency: Implications for behavioral health. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 32, 509–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hughes, C. (2010). “People as technology” conceptual model: Towards a new value creation paradigm for strategic human resource development. Human Resource Development Review, 9(1), 48–71.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484309353561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hughes, C. (2012). Valuing people and technology in the workplace: A competitive advantage framework. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hughes, C. (2014). American Black women and interpersonal leadership styles. The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hughes, C. (2016). Diversity intelligence: Integrating diversity intelligence alongside intellectual, emotional, and cultural intelligence for leadership and career development. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hughes, C. (Preface). (2018a). The role of HRD in using diversity intelligence to enhance leadership skill development and talent management strategy. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(3), 259–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hughes, C. (2018b). Conclusion: Diversity intelligence as a core of diversity training and leadership development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(3), 370–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hughes, C. (2018c). Ethical and legal issues in human resource development: Evolving roles and emerging trends. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  62. Hughes, C., & Brown, L. (2018). Exploring leaders’ discriminatory, passive-aggressive behavior toward protected class employees using diversity intelligence. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(3), 263–284 (First author contribution 80%).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hughes, C., & Byrd, M. (2015). Managing human resource development programs: Current issues and evolving trends. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hughes, C. & Gosney, M. (2016). Human resource development as a knowledge management system: The importance of bridging the scholar-practitioner gap. In C. Hughes & M. Gosney (Eds.), Bridging the scholar-practitioner gap in human resource development (pp. 1–19). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.Google Scholar
  65. Hughes, C., & Stephens, D. M. (2012). Leveraging workforce diversity through a career development paradigm shift. In C. L. Scott & M. Y. Byrd (Eds.), Handbook of research on workforce diversity in a global society: Technologies and concepts (pp. 262–272). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hunt, D. M., & Michael, C. (1983). Mentorship: A career training and development tool. Academy of Management Review, 8, 475–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Huselid, M. A., & Becker, B. E. (2011). Bridging micro and macro domains: Workforce differentiation and strategic human resource management. Journal of Management, 37, 421–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Iles, P., Forster, A., & Tinline, G. (1996). The changing relationships between work commitment, personal flexibility and employability: An evaluation of a field experiment in executive development. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 11(8), 18–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Iles, P., & Preece, D. (2010). Talent management and career development. In J. Gold, R. Thorpe, & A. Mumford (Eds.), Gower handbook of leadership and management development (pp. 243–260). Farnham: Gower.Google Scholar
  70. Iles, P., Preece, D., & Chuai, X. (2010). Talent management as a management fashion in HRD: Towards a research agenda. Human Resource Development International, 13(2), 125–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jacobs, R. L. (2003). Structured on-the-job training: Unleashing employee expertise in the workplace. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  72. Jayne, M. E., & Dipboye, R. L. (2004). Leveraging diversity to improve business performance: Research findings and recommendations for organizations. Human Resource Management, 43, 409–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (2004). Measuring the strategic readiness of intangible assets. Harvard Business Review, 82(2), 52–63.Google Scholar
  74. Karsten, M. F., & Igou F. (2005). Career planning: A model for a diverse workforce. In Refereed Proceedings of the North American Management Society Track at the 2005 Midwest Business Administration Association Conference. Chicago, IL: MBAA.Google Scholar
  75. Kasriel, S. (2018). The future of work won’t be about college degrees, it will be about job skills. Retrieved November 8, 2018, from https://www.cnbc.com/2018/10/31/the-future-of-work-wont-be-about-degrees-it-will-be-about-skills.html.
  76. King, W. R., & Marks, P. V., Jr. (2008). Motivating knowledge sharing through a knowledge management system. Omega, 36(1), 131–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1994). Evaluating training programs. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  78. Konrad, A. (2006). Leveraging workplace diversity in organizations. Organization Management Journal, 3(3), 164–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lepak, D. P., & Snell, S. A. (1999). The human resource architecture: Toward a theory of human capital allocation and development. The Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 31–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lewis, R. E., & Hackman, R. J. (2006). Talent management: A critical review. Human Resource Management Review, 16(2), 139–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lo Presti, A. (2009). Snakes and ladders: Stressing the role of meta-competencies for post-modern careers. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 9, 125–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lockwood, N. R. (2006). Talent management: Driver for organizational success. HR Magazine, 51(6), 1–11.Google Scholar
  83. Mäkelä, K., Björkman, I., & Ehrnrooth, M. (2010). How do MNCs establish their talent pools? Influences on individuals’ likelihood of being labeled as talent. Journal of World Business, 45, 134–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Manufacturing Skill Standards Council (MSSC). (2006). High-performance manufacturing: Portable production skills. Chicago, IL: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  85. Marques, J. (2007). Diversity as a win-win strategy. Management Services, 51(1), 22–24.Google Scholar
  86. McCall, M. W. (1994). Identifying leadership potential in future international executives: Developing a concept. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 46(1), 49–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McCall, M. W. (1998). High flyers: Developing the next generation of leaders. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  88. McDonald, K. S., & Hite, L. M. (2005). Reviving the relevance of career development in human resource development. Human Resource Development Review, 4, 418–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McKinney, J. C. (1966). Constructive typology and social theory. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  90. McLagan, P. A. (1997). Competencies: The next generation. T + D, 51, 40–47.Google Scholar
  91. Meyers, M. C., Van Woerkom, M., & Dries, N. (2013). Talent—Innate or acquired? Theoretical considerations and their implications for talent management. Human Resource Management Review, 23, 305–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Michaels, E., Handfield-Jones, H., & Axelrod, B. (2001). The war for talent. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.Google Scholar
  93. Mönks, F. J., & Katzko, M. W. (2005). Giftedness and gifted education. In R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davidson (Eds.), Conceptions of giftedness (2nd ed., pp. 187–200). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  94. Moran, J. W., & Brightman, B. K. (2000). Leading organizational change. Journal of Workplace Learning: Employee Counseling Today, 12(2), 66–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ng, E. S. W., & Burke, R. J. (2005). Person–organization fit and the war for talent: Does diversity management make a difference? International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16, 1195–1210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nicholson, N. (1996). Career systems in crisis: Change and opportunity in the information age. Academy of Management Executive, 10(4), 40–51.Google Scholar
  97. Noe, R. A. (2017). Employee training and development (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  98. O’Brien, K. E., Biga, A., Kessler, S. R., & Allen, T. D. (2010). A meta-analytic investigation of gender differences in mentoring. Journal of Management, 36, 537–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Papierno, P. B., Ceci, S. J., Makel, M. C., & Williams, W. M. (2005). The nature and nurture of talent: A bioecological perspective on the ontogeny of exceptional abilities. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 28, 312–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Patton, W., & McMahon, M. (2006). Career development and systems theory: Connecting theory and practice (2nd ed.). Rotterdam, the Netherlands: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  101. Pfeffer, J. (2001). Fighting the war for talent is hazardous to your organization’s health. Organizational Dynamics, 29, 248–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pitts, D. (2006). Modeling the impact of diversity management. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 26, 245–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ramaswami, A., Dreher, G. F., Bretz, R., & Wiethoff, C. (2010). The interactive effects of gender and mentoring on career attainment: Making the case for female lawyers. Journal of Career Development, 37, 692–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rappaport, A., Bancroft, E., & Okum, L. (2003). The aging workforce raises new talent management issues for employers. Journal of Organizational Excellence, 23(1), 55–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ready, D. A., & Conger, J. A. (2007). Make your company a talent factory. Harvard Business Review, 85(6), 68–77.Google Scholar
  106. Reich, R. B. (2010). Aftershock: The next economy and America’s future. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  107. Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations (4th ed.). New York, NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  108. Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  109. Rothwell, W. J. (2011). Replacement planning: A starting point for succession planning and talent management. International Journal of Training and Development, 15(1), 87–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schein, E. H. (1978). Career dynamics: Matching individual and organizational needs. Reading, PA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  111. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 262–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (2000). Select on intelligence. In E. A. Locke (Ed.), The Blackwell handbook of organizational principles (pp. 3–14). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  113. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (2004). General mental ability in the world of work: Occupational attainment and job performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(1), 162–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Schmitt, M., Eid, M., & Maes, J. (2003). Synergistic person × situation interaction in distributive justice behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(1), 141–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories an educational perspective (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  116. Schuster, M. (1983). The impact of union-management cooperation on productivity and employment. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 36, 415–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Shen, J., Chanda, A., D’netto, B., & Monga, M. (2009). Managing diversity through human resource management: An international perspective and conceptual framework. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(2), 235–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Silzer, R., & Church, A. H. (2009). The pearls and perils of identifying potential. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 2, 377–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Smith, E. A. (2001). The role of tacit and explicit knowledge in the workplace. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5, 311–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Spreitzer, G. M., McCall, M. W., & Mahoney, J. D. (1997). Early identification of international executive potential. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 6–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Stahl, G. K., Björkman, I., Farndale, E., Morris, S. S., Paauwe, J., Stiles, P., et al. (2012). Six principles of effective global talent management. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53, 25–32.Google Scholar
  122. Stephens, D., & Hughes, C. (2016). Conceptualizing a career management system tool using Hughes’s values creation model for organizational competitive advantage framework. In Proceedings of the 2016 AHRD International Research Conference in the Americas. Jacksonville, FL: Academy of Human Resource Development.Google Scholar
  123. Stipanovic, N., & Stringfield, S. (2013). A qualitative inquiry of career exploration in highly implemented career and technical education programs of study. International Journal of Educational Reform, 22, 334–354.Google Scholar
  124. Subotnik, R. F., Olszewski-Kubilius, P., & Worrell, F. C. (2011). Rethinking giftedness and gifted education: A proposed direction forward based on psychological science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 12(1), 3–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Swanson, R., & Holton III, E. (2009). Foundations of human resources development (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  126. Tansley, C., & Tietze, S. (2013). Rites of passage through talent management stages: An identity work perspective. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24, 1799–1815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Thomas, K. M. (2008). Diversity resistance in organizations. New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  128. Thomas, K. M., Hu, C., Gewin, A. G., Bingham, K., & Yanchus, N. (2005). The roles of protégé race, gender, and proactive socialization attempts on peer mentoring. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(4), 540–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ulrich, D., & Smallwood, N. (2012). What is talent? Leader to Leader, 2012(63), 55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  131. Vroom, V. H. (1995). Work and motivation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  132. Wanzel, K. R., Matsumoto, E. D., Hamstra, S. J., & Anastakis, D. J. (2002). Teaching technical skills: Training on a simple, inexpensive, and portable model. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 109, 258–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Werner, J. M., & DeSimone, R. L. (2012). Human resource development (6th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western.Google Scholar
  134. Wuim-Pam, B. (2014). Employee core competencies for effective talent management. Human Resource Management Research, 4(3), 49–55.Google Scholar
  135. Yost, P. R., & Chang, G. (2009). Everyone is equal, but some are more equal than others. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 2, 442–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Younger, J., Smallwood, N., & Ulrich, D. (2007). Developing your organization’s brand as a talent developer. Human Resource Planning, 30(2), 21–29.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations