Integration and Disintegration: Two-Level Games in the EU
The centrifugal tendencies of the EU make us aware that our theories of European integration were not formulated to explain disintegration. Furthermore, attempts to explain disintegration, notably the new intergovernmentalism, portray these tendencies as idiosyncratically European and dysfunctional. But we can observe disintegration and collective action failure elsewhere, and not all new institution-building is dysfunctional. This chapter interprets recent EU institution-building and its limits in light of the concept of two-level games, both in its classic instrumental version of Putnam (1988) and in a more recent normative version developed by Bellamy and Weale (2015). Framing the new economic governance of the EU as the result of two-level games can help us see the specific collective action problems of an incomplete union and the general problems of international cooperation.
- Barber, T. (2010, October 11). Dinner on the Edge of the Abyss. Financial Times.Google Scholar
- BBC. (2011, December 9). David Cameron Blocks EU-Wide Deal to Tackle Euro Crisis. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-16104275. Accessed October 22, 2016.
- Beach, D. (2013). The Fiscal Compact, Euro-Reforms and the Challenge for the Euro-Outs. Danish Foreign Policy Yearbook, 13, 113–133.Google Scholar
- Bickerton, C. J., Hodson, D., & Puetter, U. (Eds.). (2015b). The New Intergovernmentalism: States and Supranational Actors in the Post-Maastricht Era. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- BIS. (2010, June). Quarterly Review. Basel: Bank for International Settlements.Google Scholar
- Brunnermeier, M., Crockett, A., Goodhart, C., Persaud, A. D., & Shin, H. S. (2009). The Fundamental Principles of Financial Regulation. Geneva and London: International Center for Monetary and Banking Studies and Centre for Economic Policy Research.Google Scholar
- Burret, H. T., & Schnellenbach, J. (2013, November). Implementation of the Fiscal Compact in the Euro Area Member States (Working Paper No. 08/2013) (Updated January 2014). German Council of Economic Experts (Sachverständigenrat).Google Scholar
- De Grauwe, P. (2013). Design Failures in the Eurozone: Can They Be Fixed? (LEQS Paper No. 57/2013). London: LSE European Institute.Google Scholar
- Dehousse, R. (2012, February). The Fiscal Compact: Legal Uncertainty and Political Ambiguity (Notr Europe Policy Brief No. 33). Available at: http://infoeuropa.eurocid.pt/database/000048001-000049000/000048296.pdf. Accessed October 16, 2016.
- Draghi, M. (2012, July 26). Speech: Mario Draghi, President of the European Central Bank at the Global Investment Conference, London. Press Release. Available at: http://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/key/date/2012/html/sp120726.en.html. Accessed October 22, 2016.
- ECB. (2015, April). Financial Integration in Europe. Annual Report. Frankfurt: European Central Bank.Google Scholar
- Economist. (2010, August 13). Slovakia’s Revolt Against Solidarity. Available at: http://www.economist.com/blogs/easternapproaches/2010/08/slovakia_and_greece. Accessed October 22, 2016.
- Eder, F. (2016, July 27).Wolfgang Schäuble Bails Out Spain, Portugal. Politico. Available at: http://www.politico.eu/article/wolfgang-schauble-bails-out-spain-portugal-sanctions-juncker-german-finance-minister/. Accessed October 22, 2016.
- EPRS. (2016, June). Fiscal Compact Treaty: Scorecard for 2015. European Parliament Research Service, PE 581.403. Brussels: Stanislas de Finance.Google Scholar
- European Commission. (2017). The Fiscal Compact: Taking Stock. Communication from the Commission, C(2017) 1200 Final. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
- FAZ. (2015, December 9). Schäuble nennt Bedingungen für europäische Einlagenversicherung. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 286, 18.Google Scholar
- Giles, C., & Parker, G. (2011, July 20). Osborne Urges Eurozone to ‘Get a Grip’. Financial Times. Available at: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/e357fe94-b2ec-11e0-86b8-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3ub8U1MJT.
- Hancké, B. (2016). Brexit, Red Lines and the EU: The Two-level Game Revisited. EURPP Blog. http://bit.ly/2i7BJ8y. Accessed November 2, 2018.
- Juncker, J.-C., Tusk, D., Dijsselbloem, J., Draghi, M., & Schulz, M. (2015). Completing Europe’s Economic and Monetary Union. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
- Mair, P. (2009). Responsible Versus Responsive Government (MPIfG Working Paper No. 09/8). Cologne: Max-Planck Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung.Google Scholar
- May, T. (2016, October 5). Keynote Speech: Theresa May at Conservative Party Conference, Birmingham. Full Transcript. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/theresa-may-speech-tory-conference-2016-in-full-transcript-a7346171.html. Accessed October 22, 2016.
- Moravcsik, A. (1998) The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht. London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
- Moravcsik, A. (2012). Europe After the Crisis: How to Sustain a Common Currency. Foreign Affairs, 91(3), 54–64.Google Scholar
- Parsons, C., & Matthijs, M. (2015). European Integration Past, Present and Future: Moving Forward Through Crisis? In M. Matthijs & M. Blyth (Eds.), The Future of the Euro (pp. 210–232). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Quaglia, L. (2019). European Union Financial Regulation, Banking Union, Capital Markets Union and the UK. In C. Hay & D. Bailey (Eds.), Diverging Capitalisms (pp. 99–123). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan (this volume).Google Scholar
- Rosamund, B. (2000). Theories of European Integration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Schelkle, W., & Lokdam, H. (2015, November 27). Financial Regulation and the Protection of Eurozone Outs. Report of the Hearing on Brexit. London: LSE. Available at: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/66945/1/Hearing-1—Financial-regulation-and-the-protection-of-Eurozone-outs.pdf.
- Schelling, T. C. (1960). The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Stiglitz, J. (2016). The Euro: How a Common Currency Threatens the Future of Europe. New York and London: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
- Van Rompuy, H., Barroso, J. M., Juncker, J.-C., & Draghi, M. (2012). Towards a Genuine Economic and Monetary Union. Brussels: European Union.Google Scholar