The Spatial Dimension of the Energy Transition: European Renewable Energy Sources—Local Resources and International Exchange
A single renewable energy power plant relies strongly on the availability of specific resources such as wind, solar, water, biomass and geothermal energy. Connected to the grid, however, the generation of all renewables in a certain area is summed up and the availability of a single resource is less important. Because cost-efficient systems benefit from using different resources which are distributed throughout Europe, recent studies have focused on analyzing the spatial dimension of resources. Renewable energy, however, is sourced and distributed locally. Decisions on investments in renewables and new power plants are therefore more decentralized and made by local investors. Grid integration and grid connection of each individual power plant is a basic requirement. On the other hand, exchanging electricity over longer distances via the energy grid requires action at national and international level (e.g. new transmission lines). With an increasing share of renewable energy in the electricity system, international electricity exchanges are increasing and this leads to more coordination between grid operators and utilities. Therefore, local resources can only be used efficiently if they are integrated into European electricity systems and exchanged between European countries. This paper discusses the interaction between local electricity generation from renewables and the international coordination required to allow renewable electricity to flow to consumers across Europe.
This publication is supported by funding in the project WeatherAggReOpt funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) under contract no. 03ET4042B.
- ENTSOE. (2016). 10-year network development plan (TYNDP). http://tyndp.entsoe.eu/: s.n., 2016.
- Kost, C., et al. (2015). Renewable energy expansion and interaction in Europe: High resolution modeling of Germany and Greece. In 12th International Conference of the European Energy Market 2015 20.05.2015–22.05.2015 in Lisboa. Google Scholar
- Kost, C., et al. (2016). RESDEGREE – Towards an energy system in Europe based on renewables. Final Report, 11/30/2015. https://www.ise.fraunhofer.de/de/downloads/pdf-files/projektberichte/res-degree_final_report.pdf