Vitamin E

  • Umaiyal Munusamy
  • Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah


Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that consists of four different tocopherol and tocotrienol isomers (α, β, γ and δ). Homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT) catalyses the condensation of homogentisate (HGA) and phytyl diphosphate (PDP). The HGA serves as precursors for the synthesis of tocopherols, tocotrienols and also plastoquinol-9 (PQ-9) in chloroplasts of plants. The condensation of PDP and HGA by HPT will produce intermediate product for tocopherol production. In addition, condensation of HGA and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) by homogentisate geranylgeranyl transferase (HGGT) will produce tocotrienols. Meanwhile, tocopherol cyclase forms the chromanol head group of the various tocopherol and tocotrienol isomers. Medical evidence suggests that vitamin E especially α-tocotrienol which can be found in seeds and cereal grains protects the cells against cancer, strong antioxidant and an effective neuroprotector.


Vitamin E Tocopherol Tocotrienol Homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT) Tocopherol cyclase (TC) Antioxidant Cancer 





2, 3-dimethyl-5-geranylgeranyl benzoquinol

GGDP Reductase

geranylgeranyl diphosphate reductase


Geranylgeranyl diphosphate




Homogentisate geranylgeranyl transferase




p-hydroxyphenolpyruvate dioxygenase


Homogentisate phytyltransferase




Phytyl diphosphate




2-methyl-6-prenylbenzoquinol methyltransferase


Tocopherol cyclase


Gamma-tocopherol methyltransferase


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Umaiyal Munusamy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Plantation StudiesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaUPM, Serdang, SelangorMalaysia
  2. 2.Centre for Research in Biotechnology for Agriculture (CEBAR), Level 3, Research Management & Innovation ComplexUniversiti of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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