Advertisement

Nutritional and Bioactive Profiles of Sprouted Seeds of Mangrove Wild Legume Canavalia cathartica

  • Dorothy D. Anita
  • Kandikere R. Sridhar
Chapter

Abstract

This study evaluated the nutritional and bioactive potential of germinated seeds of mangrove landrace of Canavalia cathartica of the Southwest India. Germinated seeds possess high protein, high carbohydrates, low lipid, low fibre and high calorific value. Copper, zinc and manganese meet NRC-NAS stipulated standards, while Na-K and Ca-P ratios are favourable to combat blood pressure and calcium retention, respectively. Except for the glutamic acid and tryptophan, amino acids significantly increased in cooked seeds. Most of the essential amino acids (except for tryptophan) are comparable or higher than soybean or rice or FAO-WHO standard for adults. Among the protein fractions, albumins are highest with increased albumin-globulin ratio predicts drastic decrease in antinutritional factors. Increased in vitro protein digestibility, essential amino acid score, protein digestibility corrected to amino acid score and protein efficiency ratios indicate that the cooked germinated seeds are nutritionally superior. Significant decrease in total phenolics, tannins, canavanine in cooked seeds without trypsin inhibition and lowered hemagglutinin activities further confirm suitability of cooked germinated seeds for human nutrition. The nutritional qualities of germinated seeds are comparable to traditionally consumed ripened split beans of three coastal landraces of Canavalia.

Keywords

Mangrove Germination Nutrition Proximate composition Minerals Essential amino acids Essential fatty acids Protein bioavailability Antinutritional factors 

Notes

Acknowledgement

Authors are grateful to the Mangalore University for permission to carry out this study in the Department of Biosciences. The first author (DDA) acknowledges the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India and Mangalore University for the award of Junior Research Fellowship under the scheme Research Fellowship in Sciences for Meritorious Students. The corresponding author (KRS) acknowledges the award University Grants Commission-Basic Science Research Faculty Fellowship by the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India.

References

  1. Abu-Tarboush HM (1998) Irradiation inactivation of some antinutritional factors in plant seeds. J Agric Food Chem 46:2698–2708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akeson WR, Stahmann MA (1964) A pepsin pancreatin digest index of protein quality. J Nutr 83:257–261PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akpapunam MA, Sefa-Dedeh S (1997) Some physicochemical properties and anti-nutritional factors of raw, cooked and germinated jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). Food Chem 59:121–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alonso R, Aguirre A, Marzo F (2000) Effects of extrusion and traditional processing methods on antinutrients and in vitro digestibility of protein and starch in faba and kidney beans. Food Chem 68:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alsmeyer RH, Cunningham AE, Happich ML (1974) Equations predict PER from amino acid analysis. Food Technol 28:34–38Google Scholar
  6. Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Cook-Newell ME (1995) Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. New Eng J Med 333:276–282PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Anita DD, Sridhar KR, Kumar SN (2014) Total lipids and fatty acid methyl esters of germinated seeds of mangrove wild legume. Curr Nutr Food Sci 10:187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. AOAC (1995) Official methods of analysis, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  9. Arinathan V, Mohan VR, De Britto AJ (2003) Chemical composition of certain tribal pulses in South India. Int J Food Sci Nutr 54:209–217PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Arun AB, Sridhar KR, Raviraja NS, Schmidt E, Jung K (2003) Nutritional and antinutritional components of Canavalia spp. seeds from the west coast sand dunes of India. Pl Foods Hum Nutr 58:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Balogun AM, Fetuga BL (1986) Chemical composition of some underexploited leguminous crop seeds in Nigeria. J Agric Food Chem 34:189–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bau HM, Vallaume C, Lin CF, Evard J, Quemener B, Nicolas JP, Mejean L (1994) Effect of solid state fermentation using Rhizopus oligosporus sp. T-3 on elimination of antinutritional substances and modification of biochemical constituents of defatted rape seed meal. J Sci Food Agric 65:315–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baudoin JP, Maquet A (1999) Improvement of protein and amino acid content in seeds of food legumes – a case study in Phaseolus. Biotech Agron Soc Environ 3:220–224Google Scholar
  14. Bell EA (1960) Canavanine in the Leguminosae. Biochem J 75:618–620PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhagya B, Sridhar KR (2007) Composition and nutritive value of tender pods of mangrove wild legume Canavalia cathartica of southwest coast of India. Trop Subtrop Agroecosys 7:177–191Google Scholar
  16. Bhagya B, Sridhar KR, Seena S, Young C-C, Arun AB, Nagaraja KV (2006) Nutritional qualities and in vitro starch digestibility of ripened Canavalia cathartica beans of coastal sand dunes of southern India. Elec J Environ Agric Food Chem 5:1241–1252Google Scholar
  17. Bhat R, Karim AA (2009) Exploring the nutritional potential of wild and underutilized legumes. Compre Rev Food Sci Food Saf 8:305–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bhat R, Sridhar KR (2008) Effect of electron beam irradiation on the quality characteristics of an underutilized economically valued tropical legume Mucuna pruriens L. DC. Electr J Environ Agric Food Chem 7:2565–2581Google Scholar
  19. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37:911–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brand WA, Tegtmeyer AR, Hilkert A (1994) Compound-specific isotope analysis, extending towards 15N/14N and 13C/12C. Org Geochem 21:585–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bressani R, Brenes RS, Garcia A, Elias LG (1987) Chemical composition, amino acid content and protein quality of Canavalia spp. seeds. J Sci Food Agric 40:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burns R (1971) Methods for estimation of tannins in grain sorghum. Agron J 63:511–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cheryan M (1980) Phytic acid interactions in food systems. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 13:297–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cho BHS (1989) Soybean oil: its nutritional value and physical role related to polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. American Soybean Association Technical Bulletin, Creve Couer #4HN6Google Scholar
  25. D’Cunha M (2009) Ecological and biochemical studies on Sand Dune Canavalia of West Coast of India. Ph.D. thesis in Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  26. D’Cunha M, Sridhar KR (2010) L-canavanine and L-arginine in two wild legumes of the genus Canavalia. Inst Integr Omics Appl Biotechnol J 1:29–33Google Scholar
  27. D’Cunha M, Sridhar KR, Young C-C, Arun AB (2009) Nutritional evaluation of germinated seeds of coastal sand dune wild legume Canavalia cathartica. Int Food Res J 16:249–260Google Scholar
  28. Deshpande SS, Sathe SK, Salunkhe DK (1984) Dry beans of Phaseolus: a review, part 3. Process CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 21:137–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ekanayake S, Jansz ER, Nair BM (1999) Proximate composition, mineral and amino acid content of mature Canavalia gladiata seeds. Food Chem 66:115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ekanayake S, Skog K, Asp NG (2007) Canavanine content in sword beans (Canavalia gladiata): analysis and effect of processing. Food Chem Toxicol 45:797–803PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Enneking D, Wink M (2000) Towards the elimination of anti-nutritional factors in grain legumes. In: Knight R (ed) Current plant science and biotechnology in agriculture, vol 34. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 375–384Google Scholar
  32. Ezeagu IE, Metges CC, Proll J, Petzke KJ, Akinsoyinu AO (1996) Chemical composition and nutritive value of some wild-gathered tropical plant seeds. Food Nutr Bull 17:275–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. FAO (2000) Food insecurity: when people live with hunger and fear starvation. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  34. FAO-WHO (1991) Protein quality evaluation: reports of a joint FAO-WHO expert consultation, food and nutrition paper # 51. Food and agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  35. FAO-WHO (1998) Preparation and use of food-based dietary guidelines. Report of joint FAO-WHO consultation. Technical report series # 880. FAO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  36. Friedman M (1996) Nutritional value of proteins from different food sources – a review. J Agric Food Chem 44:6–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gahukar RT (2009) Food security: the challenges of climate change and bioenergy. Curr Sci 96:26–28Google Scholar
  38. Ghavidel RA, Prakash J (2007) The impact of germination and dehulling on nutrients, antinutrients, in-vitro iron and calcium bioavailability and in vitro starch and protein digestibility of some legume seeds. LWT – Food Sci Technol 40:1292–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gheyasuddin S, Cater CM, Mattil KF (1970) Preparation of a colourless sunflower protein isolate. Food Technol 24:242–243Google Scholar
  40. Giami SY, Akusu MO, Emelike JN (2001) Valuation of selected food attributes of four advances lines of ungerminated and germinated Nigerian cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Pl Food Hum Nutr 56:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gupta CN, Wagle DS (1978) Proximate composition and nutritive value of Phaseolus mungoreus. A cross between Phaseolus mungo and Phaseolus aureus. J Food Sci Technol 15:34–35Google Scholar
  42. Hagerman AE, Riedl KM, Jones GA, Sovik KN, Ritchard NT, Hartfield PW, Riechel TL (1998) High molecular weight plant polyphenolics (tannins) as biological antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem 46:1887–1892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hertog MGL, Sweetnam PM, Fehily AM, Elwood PC, Kromhout D (1997) Antioxidant flavonols and ischaemic heart disease in a Welsh population of men – the Caerphilly study. Am J Clin Nutr 65:1489–1494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hofmann D, Gehre M, Jung K (2003) Sample preparation techniques for the determination of natural 15N/14N variations in amino acids by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Isotopes Environ Health Stud 39:233–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hofmann D, Jung K, Bender J, Gehre M, Schüürmann G (1997) Using natural isotope variations of nitrogen in plants as an early indicator of air pollution stress. J Mass Spectrom 32:855–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Humphries EC (1956) Mineral composition and ash analysis. In: Peach K, Tracey MV (eds) Modern methods of plant analysis, vol 1. Springer, Berlin, pp 468–502Google Scholar
  47. Jambunathan R, Singh U (1980) Studies on Desi and Kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars. 1. Chemical composition. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Chickpea Improvement. ICRISAT, Andhra Pradesh, India, pp 61–66Google Scholar
  48. Kakade ML, Rackis JJ, McGhee JE, Puski G (1974) Determination of trypsin inhibitor activity of soy products, a collaborative analysis of an improved procedure. Cereal Chem 51:376–382Google Scholar
  49. Khan AM, Jacobson I, Eggum OB (1979) Nutritive value of some improved varieties of legumes. J Sci Food Agric 30:390–400Google Scholar
  50. Livsmedelsverk S (1988) Energi Och Näringsämnen. The Swedish Food Administration, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  51. Mubarak AE (2005) Nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of mung bean seeds (Phaseolus aureus) as affected by some home traditional processes. Food Chem 89:489–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Müller HG, Tobin G (1980) Nutrition and good processing. Croom Helm Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  53. Muzquiz M, Pedrosa MM, Cuadrado C, Ayet G, Burbano C, Brenes A (1998) Variation of alkaloids, alkaloid esters, phytic acid and phytase activity in germinated seeds of Lupinus albus and L. luteus. In: Jansman AJM, Hill GD, Huisman J, van der Poel AFB (eds) Recent advances of research in antinutritional factors in legume seeds and rapeseed, EAAP publication # 93. Wageningen Press, Wageningen, pp 387–−390Google Scholar
  54. Nakatsu S, Matsuda M, Sakagami T, Takahashi T, Yamatato S (1996) Decomposition of canavanine in process of germination in the seeds of Canavalia gladiata. Seikagaku 38:67–71Google Scholar
  55. Nareshkumar S (2007) Capillary gas chromatography method for fatty acid analysis of coconut oil. J Plant Crops 35:23–27Google Scholar
  56. NRC-NAS (1989) Recommended dietary allowances. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  57. Nwokolo E (1987) Nutritional evaluation of pigeon pea meal. Pl Foods Hum Nutr 37:283–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nwokolo E, Oji DIM (1985) Variation in metabolizable energy content of raw or autoclaved white and brown varieties of three tropical grain legumes. Anim Food Sci Technol 13:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Occenã IV, Majica E-RE, Merca FE (2007) Isolation of partial characterization of a lectin from the seeds of Artocarpus camansi Blanco. Asian J Plant Sci 6:757–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Osman MA (2007) Changes in nutrient composition, trypsin inhibitor, phytates, tannins and protein digestibility of Dolichos Lablab seeds [Lablab Purpureus (L) sweet] occurring during germination. J Food Technol 5:294–299Google Scholar
  61. Padua-Resurreccion AB, Banzon JA (1979) Fatty acid composition of the oil from progressively maturing bunches of coconut. Philip J Coconut Stud 4:1–15Google Scholar
  62. Petzke KJ, Ezeagu IE, Proll J, Akinsoyinu AO, Metges CC (1997) Amino acid composition, available lysine content and in vitro protein digestibility of selected tropical crop seeds. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 50:151–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Poel AFBV, Gravandecl S, Boer H (1991) Effect of different processing methods on the tannin content and protein digestibility of faba bean. J Anim Feed Sci Technol 33:49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pugalenthi M, Vadivel V, Gurumoorthi P, Janardhanan K (2004) Comparative nutritional evaluation of little known legumes, Tamarindus indica, Erythrina indica and Sesbania bispinosa. Trop Subtrop Agroecosys 4:107–123Google Scholar
  65. Rajaram N, Janardhanan K (1992) Nutritional and chemical evaluation of raw seeds of Canavalia gladiata (Jacq) DC. and C. ensiformis DC, the underutilized food and fodder crops in India. Plants Foods Hum Nutr 42:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rao BSN, Deosthale YG, Pant KC (1999) Nutritive value of Indian Foods. Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute of Nutrition, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  67. Rao TA, Sherieff AN (2002) Coastal ecosystem of the Karnataka State, India II – Beaches. Karnataka Association for the Advancement of Science, Bangalore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  68. Rao TA, Suresh PV (2001) Coastal ecosystems of the Karnataka State, India – 1. Mangroves. Karnataka Association for the Advancement of Science, Bangalore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  69. Reddy NR, Pierson MD, Sathe SK, Salunkhe DK (1985) Dry bean tannins, a review of nutritional implications. J Am Oil Chem Soc 62:541–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Riddoch CH, Mills CF, Duthie GG (1998) An evaluation of germinating beans as a source of vitamin C in refugee foods. Eur J Clin Nutr 52:115–118PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Rosenthal GA (1970) Investigation of canavanine biochemistry in the jack bean, Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. 1. Canavanine utilization in the developing plant. Plant Physiol 46:273–276PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rosset J, Bärlocher F, Oertli JJ (1982) Decomposition of conifer needles and deciduous leaves in two Black Forest and two Swiss Jura streams. Int Rev Ges Hydrobiol 67:695–711Google Scholar
  73. Sadasivam S, Manickam A (1992) Biochemical methods for agricultural sciences. Wiley Eastern Ltd., New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  74. Salvin J, Jacobs DR, Marquart L (1997) Whole grain consumption and chronic disease: protective mechanisms. Nutr Canc 27:14–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sangronis E, Machado CJ (2007) Influence of germination on the nutritional quality of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cajanus cajan. LWT J Sci Technol 40:116–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schelze H, Savelkoul FH, Verstegen MW, van der Poel AF, Tamminga S, Groot NS (1997) Nutritional evaluation of biologically treated white kindly beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in pigs: Ileal and amino acid digestibility. J Anim Sci 75:3187–3194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Seena S, Sridhar KR (2006) Nutritional and microbiological features of little known legumes, Canavalia cathartica Thouars and C. maritima Thouars of the southwest coast of India. Curr Sci 90:1638–1650Google Scholar
  78. Seena S, Sridhar KR, Arun AB (2007) Canavalia cathartica of southwest coast of India – a neglected wild legume. Plants Gen Res Newslett 150:16–20Google Scholar
  79. Seena S, Sridhar KR, Arun AB, Young C-C (2006) Effect of roasting and pressure-cooking on nutritional and protein quality of seeds of mangrove legume Canavalia cathartica from southwest coast of India. J Food Comp Anal 19:284–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Seena S, Sridhar KR, Bhagya B (2005) Biochemical and biological evaluation of an unconventional legume, Canavalia maritima of coastal sand dunes of India. Trop Subtrop Agroecosys 5:1–14Google Scholar
  81. Shills MEG, Young VR (1988) Modern nutrition in health and disease. In: Neiman DC, Buthepodorth DE, Nieman CN, Nutrition, WmC Brown Publishers, Dubugue, 276–282Google Scholar
  82. Shimelis EA, Rakshit SK (2007) Effect of processing on antinutritional and in vitro protein digestibility of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) verities grown in East Africa. Food Chem 103:161–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shreelalitha J, Supriya P, Sridhar KR (2018) Bioactive profile of edible ripened split beans of three wild landraces of coastal Canavalia. In: Öztürk M, Hakeem KR (eds) Medicinal and aromatic plant species in human health, Phytochemistry, vol 3. Springer International, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Simopoulos AP (2002) The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 56:365–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sridhar KR, Shreelalitha SJ, Supriya P, Arun AB (2016) Nutraceutical attributes of ripened split beans of three Canavalia landraces. J Agric Technol 12:1277–1297Google Scholar
  86. StatSoft Inc. (2008) Statistica, Version # 8. StatSoft, Tulsa, OKGoogle Scholar
  87. Swaffar DS, Ang CY, Desai PB, Rosenthal GA (1994) Inhibition of the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells by the arginine antimetabolite L-canavanine. Cancer Res 54:6045–6048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Trugo LC, Donangelo CM, Trugo NMF, Knudsen KEB (2000) Effect of heat treatment on nutritional quality of germinated legume seeds. J Agric Food Chem 48:2082–2086PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Urbano G, Lopez-Jurdo M, Hernandez J, Fernandez M, Moreu MC, Frias J, Dias-Pollan C, Prodanov M, Vidal-Valverde C (1995) Nutritional assessment of raw, heated and germinated lentils. J Agric Food Chem 43:1871–1877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Vadivel V, Janardhanan K (2001) Nutritional and anti-nutritional attributers of the under-utilized legume, Cassia floribunda Cav. Food Chem 73:209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vadivel V, Pugalenthi M (2007) Biological value and protein quality of raw and processed seeds of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis. Livestock Res Rural Dev 19:7 http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd19/7/vadi19097.htmGoogle Scholar
  92. Vadivel V, Pugalenthi M, Megha S (2008) Biological evaluation of protein quality of raw and processed seeds of gila bean (Entada scandens Benth). Trop Subtrop Agroecosys 8:125–133Google Scholar
  93. Vanderstoep J (1981) Effect of germination on the nutritive value of legumes. Food Technol 35:83–85Google Scholar
  94. Venn BJ, Mann JI (2004) Cereal grains, legumes and diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 58:1443–1461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Viswanathan MB, Thangadurai D, Ramesh N (2001) Biochemical evaluation of Neonotonia wightii (Wight and Arn) Lackey (Fabaceae). Food Chem 75:275–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wahnon R, Mokady S, Cogan U (1988) Proceedings of 19th World Congress. International Society for Fat Research, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  97. Yusuf AA, Mofio BM, Ahmed AB (2007) Proximate and mineral composition of Tamarindus indica Linn 1753 seeds. Sci World J 2:1–4Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dorothy D. Anita
    • 1
  • Kandikere R. Sridhar
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZoologySt. Aloysius CollegeMangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiosciencesMangalore UniversityMangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations