Adaptive Immune Responses

  • Vladimir V. Klimov


The second line of body defense against external invaders and internal enemies is adaptive immune responses. The adaptive responses are categorized into four types depending on the participation of T cells and B cells, the formation of memory cells type, and end effector mechanisms. There are the criticism and discussion related to the classical T helper 1/T helper 2 paradigm and the description of new regulatory nonadaptive and adaptive lymphocyte subsets such as Tfh, Tfr, Th9, Th17, and Th22. The reader can also find the information on the hepatic, metabolic, neuroendocrine, and genetic regulation of the adaptive immunity and mechanisms of maintenance immune tolerance. Clinical comments include the description of primary immunodeficiencies on the base of mutations in genes crucial for the adaptive immunity and clinical significance of end effector mechanisms in deviating from the healthy state conditions, e.g., immune inflammation.

Supplementary material

Video 4.1

Simple B-cell-mediated response (MP4 313 kb)

Video 4.2

Advanced B-cell-mediated response (MP4 410 kb)

Video 4.3

CD4+ T-cell-mediated response (MP4 393 kb)

Video 4.4

CD8+ T-cell-mediated response (MP4 406 kb)

Video 4.5

Antigen processing (MP4 378 kb)

466144_1_En_4_MOESM6_ESM.mp3 (14.2 mb)
(MP3 14529 kb)



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vladimir V. Klimov
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinical Immunology and Allergy DepartmentSiberian State Medical UniversityTomskRussia

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