Advertisement

The Best Way to Reduce Discards Is by Not Catching Them!

  • David G. ReidEmail author
  • Julia Calderwood
  • Pedro Afonso
  • Pierre Bourdaud
  • Laurence Fauconnet
  • José Manuel González-Irusta
  • Lars O. Mortensen
  • Francesc Ordines
  • Sigrid Lehuta
  • Lionel Pawlowski
  • Kristian S. Plet-Hansen
  • Zachary Radford
  • Marianne Robert
  • Marie-Joelle Rochet
  • Lucía Rueda
  • Clara Ulrich
  • Youen Vermard

Abstract

Under the Landing Obligation (LO) fishers will need to reduce or land fish that were previously discarded. In this chapter we look at how they might be able to do that by summarising a number of studies conducted in various European regions. We start by describing a series of “challenge” trials where fishers tried to reduce their discards by whatever (legal) means they thought best. In some cases, they were able to reduce unwanted catches, in others they were less successful. We also interviewed fishers not involved in the trials to ask them what they thought they could do. We explore their approaches which generally fell into three categories: more selective gear; tactical and strategic changes; and management changes. Scientific data (surveys, landings, and observers data) can also be valuable to help fishers to decide where and when to fish to best avoid unwanted catches and maximise opportunities to catch their quotas. We provide some examples of this type of approach, and also how these can be adapted for use as interactive online apps that fishers can use in planning or whilst at sea.

Keywords

Challenge trials Decision support tools Discard avoidance Fine scale mapping Fish distribution Fishers Fishing strategies Hot-spot maps 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has received funding from the Horizon 2020 Programme under grant agreement DiscardLess number 633680. This support is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Anon. (2011). Atlas of demersal discarding, scientific observations and potential solutions. Marine Institute, Bord Iascaigh Mhara, September 2011. ISBN:978-1-902895-50-5. 82 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Balazuc, A., Goffier, E., Soulet, E., Rochet, M.J., Leleu, K. (2016). EODE – Expérimentation de l’Obligation de DEbarquement à bord de chalutiers de fond artisans de Manche Est et mer du Nord, et essais de valorisation des captures non désirées sous quotas communautaires, Comité Regional de Pêches Maritimes et des Élevages Marins de la Réunion. 136 + 53 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Bergsson, H., Plet-Hansen, K.S., Jessen, L.N., Jensen, P., Bahlke, S.Ø. (2017). Final report on development and usage of REM systems along with electronic data transfer as a measure to monitor compliance with the Landing Obligation – 2016. Danish AgriFish Agency, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries.  https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.23628.00645. 61 pp.
  4. Bourdaud, P., Travers-Trolet, M., Vermard, Y., Cormon, X., Marchal, P., et al. (2017). Inferring the annual, seasonal, and spatial distributions of marine species from complementary research and commercial vessels’ catch rates. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 74(9), 2415–2426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Calderwood, J., Cosgrove, R., Moore, S.-J., Hehir, I., Curtin, R., Reid, D.G., et al. (2016). Assessment of the impacts of the Landing Obligation on Irish Vessels, BIM Technical Report. http://www.bim.ie/media/bim/content/publications/Lo,report,2016_final.pdf. 22 pp.
  6. Condie, H.M., Grant, A., Catchpole, T.L. (2014). Incentivising selective fishing under a policy to ban discards; lessons from European and global fisheries. Marine Policy, 45(0), 287–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dunn, D.C., Boustany, A.M., Halpin, P.N. (2011). Spatio-temporal management of fisheries to reduce by-catch and increase fishing selectivity. Fish and Fisheries, 12(1), 110–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eliasen, S.Q., Papadopoulou, K.N., Vassilopoulou, V., Catchpole, T.L. (2014). Socio-economic and institutional incentives influencing fishers’ behaviour in relation to fishing practices and discard. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 71(5), 1298–1307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fauconnet, L., Das, D., González, J.M., Catarino, D., Giacomello, E., Fontes, J., et al. (2018). Can deep-water sharks be avoided? Spatial mitigation measures in the deep-sea longline fisheries in the Azores. In D. Reid and L. Fauconnet (Eds.), Decision support tool for fishers incorporating information from tasks 4.1, 4.2 and information on unwanted catches derived from scientific data. DiscardLess deliverable D4.3.Google Scholar
  10. Fontes, J., Rosa, A., Graça, G., Giacomelo, E., Cardenal, R., Afonso, P., et al. (2015). Can Deep Sea Sharks respond to short term protection? Looking into the deep (2015). European Elasmobranch Association meeting 2015, Peniche, Portugal.Google Scholar
  11. Fraser, H.M., Greenstreet, S.P.R., Fryer, R.J., Piet, G.J. (2008). Mapping spatial variation in demersal fish species diversity and composition in the North Sea: accounting for species- and size-related catchability in survey trawls. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65(4), 531–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gerritsen, H., & Lordan, C. (2011). Integrating vessel monitoring systems (VMS) data with daily catch data from logbooks to explore the spatial distribution of catch and effort at high resolution. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68(1), 245–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hilborn, R. (2007). Managing fisheries is managing people: what has been learned? Fish and Fisheries, 8(4), 285–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Little, A.S., Needle, C.L., Hilborn, R., Holland, D.S., Marshall, C.T. (2015). Real-time spatial management approaches to reduce bycatch and discards: experiences from Europe and the United States. Fish and Fisheries, 16(4), 576–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mortensen, L.O., Ulrich, C., Eliasen, S., Olesen, H.J. (2017). Reducing discards without reducing profit: free gear choice in a Danish result-based management trial. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 74(5), 1469–1479.Google Scholar
  16. Nash, R.D.M., Wright, P.J., Matejusova, I., Dimitrov, S.P., O’Sullivan, M., Augley, J. (2012). Spawning location of Norway pout (Trisopterus esmarkii Nilsson) in the North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 69(8), 1338–1346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O’Neill, F.G., Feekings, J., Fryer, R.J., Fauconnet, L., Afonso, P. (this volume). Discard avoidance by improving fishing gear selectivity: Helping the fishing industry help itself. In S.S. Uhlmann, C. Ulrich, S.J. Kennelly (Eds.), The European Landing Obligation – Reducing discards in complex, multi-species and multi-jurisdictional fisheries. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Pascoe, S., Innes, J., Holland, D., Fina, M., Thébaud, O., Townsend, R., et al. (2010). Use of incentive-based management systems to limit bycatch and discarding. International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, 4(2), 123–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Plet-Hansen, K.S., Eliasen, S.Q., Mortensen, L.O., Bergsson, H., Olesen, H.J., Ulrich, C. (2017). Remote electronic monitoring and the landing obligation – some insights into fishers’ and fishery inspectors’ opinions. Marine Policy, 76, 98–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Plet-Hansen, K.S., Ulrich, C. (2018). Trade-off between value of landings and discard impact. Presentation at IIFET 2018, Seattle, United States.Google Scholar
  21. Reid, D. (2017). Initial avoidance manuals by case study including tactical, strategic and gear based approaches agreed by scientists and fishers. DiscardLess Deliverable D4.1. http://www.discardless.eu/deliverables/entry/initial-avoidance-manuals-by-case-study. 40 pp. Accessed 30 Aug 2018.
  22. Reid, D., & Fauconnet, L. (2018). Decision support tool for fishers incorporating information from tasks 4.1, 4.2 and information on unwanted catches derived from scientific data. DiscardLess Deliverable D4.3.Google Scholar
  23. Rijnsdorp, A.D., van Overzee, H.M.J., Poos, J.J. (2012). Ecological and economic trade-offs in the management of mixed fisheries: a case study of spawning closures in flatfish fisheries. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 447, 179–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rochet, M.-J., Catchpole, T., Cadrin, S. (2014). Bycatch and discards: from improved knowledge to mitigation programmes. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 71(5), 1216–1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shephard, S., Gerritsen, H.D., Kaiser, M.J., Truszkowska, H.S., Reid, D.G. (2011). Fishing and environment drive spatial heterogeneity in Celtic Sea fish community size structure. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68(10), 2106–2113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ulrich, C., Olesen, H.J., Bergsson, H., Egekvist, J., Håkansson, K.B., Dalskov, J., et al. (2015). Discarding of cod in the Danish Fully Documented Fisheries trials. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 72(6), 1848–1860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Viana, M., Graham, N., Wilson, J.G., Jackson, A.L. (2011). Fishery discards in the Irish Sea exhibit temporal oscillations and trends reflecting underlying processes at an annual scale. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68(1), 221–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zimmermann, C., Kraak, S., Krumme, U., Santos, J., Stotera, S., Nordheim, L. (2015). Research for PECH Committee – Options of handling choke species in the view of the EU landing obligation – the Baltic plaice example. European Parliament. 100 pp.  https://doi.org/10.2861/808965.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  • David G. Reid
    • 1
    Email author
  • Julia Calderwood
    • 1
  • Pedro Afonso
    • 2
  • Pierre Bourdaud
    • 8
  • Laurence Fauconnet
    • 2
  • José Manuel González-Irusta
    • 2
  • Lars O. Mortensen
    • 3
  • Francesc Ordines
    • 7
  • Sigrid Lehuta
    • 8
  • Lionel Pawlowski
    • 4
  • Kristian S. Plet-Hansen
    • 3
  • Zachary Radford
    • 5
  • Marianne Robert
    • 4
  • Marie-Joelle Rochet
    • 6
  • Lucía Rueda
    • 7
  • Clara Ulrich
    • 3
  • Youen Vermard
    • 8
  1. 1.Marine InstituteOranmoreIreland
  2. 2.Instituto do Mar (IMAR), Department of Oceanography and Fisheries, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre (MARE), and OKEANOS Research UnitUniversidade dos AçoresHortaPortugal
  3. 3.National Institute of Aquatic Resources, DTU AquaTechnical University of DenmarkKgs. LyngbyDenmark
  4. 4.Fishery Technology and Biology LaboratoryIFREMERLorientFrance
  5. 5.Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (Cefas)LowestoftUK
  6. 6.IFREMER, Centre AtlantiqueNantesFrance
  7. 7.Centro Oceanográfico de BalearesInstituto Español de OceanografÚaPalmaSpain
  8. 8.Ifremer, Fisheries Ecol & Modelling UnitNantesFrance

Personalised recommendations