Advertisement

Disruptive Technologies and Innovations in Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief: An Integrative Approach

  • Krish W. Ramadurai
  • Sujata K. Bhatia
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Bioengineering book series (BRIEFSBIOENG)

Abstract

In our previous chapters, we defined the nature of an array of innovation processes as well as their applications and development for humanitarian medicine. But once again, we have merely scratched the surface when it comes to the boundless potential for innovation in humanitarian response and management. In particular, we are currently in the midst of huge tangential shift in disaster response and mitigation responses employed by multilateral agencies. This is of course thanks to the rapid advancement and integration of novel technologies and user interfaces that hold promise in changing how we as humans respond to conflict and disaster. In this chapter, we take a holistic approach in examining a spectrum of disruptive technologies and innovation that seek to propel a new era of humanitarian medicine and the alleviation of human suffering. These innovations encompass an array of fields ranging from data collection and crisis management to the integration of mobile health (mHealth) applications and blockchain platforms to better treat refugees and conflict victims. What is fascinating is that each one of these innovations has the innate capacity to revolutionize the humanitarian relief paradigm. But when these innovations are put together, they create a highly dynamic, functional innovation ecosystem that serves as an impetus for unlimited value-creation and problem-solution discovery.

References

  1. Agnisarman, S., Narasimha, S., Madathil, K. C., Welch, B., Brinda, F. N. U., Ashok, A., & McElligott, J. (2017). Toward a more usable home-based video telemedicine system: A heuristic evaluation of the clinician user interfaces of home-based video telemedicine systems. JMIR Human Factors, 4(2), e11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. An insight into the life-changing aspects of blockchain. 2018. Medtechengine.com. Accessed 29 July 2018. https://medtechengine.com/article/blockchain/
  3. Bastawrous, A., & Armstrong, M. J. (2013). Mobile health use in low-and high-income countries: An overview of the peer-reviewed literature. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 106(4), 130–142.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Blockchain for the Humanitarian sector – Future opportunities. 2017. UN Blockchain. Accessed 26 Aug 2018. https://un-blockchain.org/2017/05/03/blockchain-for-the-humanitarian-sector-future-opportunities/
  5. Crowdsourced crisis mapping: How it works and why it matters. 2012. The Conversation. Accessed 21 Aug 2018. https://theconversation.com/crowdsourced-crisis-mapping-how-it-works-and-why-it-matters-7014
  6. Datta, N., MacQueen, I. T., Schroeder, A. D., Wilson, J. J., Espinoza, J. C., Wagner, J. P., Filipi, C. J., & Chen, D. C. (2015). Wearable technology for global surgical teleproctoring. Journal of surgical education, 72(6), 1290–1295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Doocy, S., Paik, K., Lyles, E., Tam, H. H., Fahed, Z., Winkler, E., Kontunen, K., Mkanna, A., & Burnham, G. (2017). Pilot testing and implementation of a mHealth tool for Non-communicable Diseases in a Humanitarian Setting. PLoS currents, 9, 5–42.Google Scholar
  8. Ekanoye, F., Ayeni, F., Olokunde, T., Nina, V., Donalds, C., & Mbarika, V. (2017). Telemedicine diffusion in a developing country: A case of Nigeria. Science Journal of Public Health, 5(4), 341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. First response monitor | Cambridge design case studies. 2018. Cambridge-Design.Com. Accessed 27 Aug 2018. https://www.cambridge-design.com/case-studies/first-response-monitor
  10. First response monitor by Cambridge design partnership. 2015. Innova Systems. Accessed 23 Aug 2018. https://www.innova-systems.co.uk/first-response-monitor-cambridge-design-partnership/
  11. Gao, H., Barbier, G., Goolsby, R., & Zeng, D. (2011). Harnessing the crowdsourcing power of social media for disaster relief. Tempe: Arizona State University.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Heinzelman, J., & Waters, C. (2010). Crowdsourcing crisis information in disaster-affected Haiti. Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace.Google Scholar
  13. How tech can bring dignity to refugees in humanitarian crises. 2018. The Conversation. Accessed 20 July 2018. https://theconversation.com/how-tech-can-bring-dignity-to-refugees-in-humanitarian-crises-94213
  14. Khushi Baby. 2018. Khushibaby.org. Accessed 25 Aug 2018. https://www.khushibaby.org/
  15. Khushi Baby case study by UNESCO-Pearson Initiative for Literacy. UNESCO, 2017. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0026/002605/260596E.pdf
  16. Khushi Baby’s necklace keeps track of immunizations. 2016. Futurity. Accessed 21 Aug 2018. https://www.futurity.org/immunizations-india-khushi-baby-1084412-2/
  17. Krishnan, G., Chawdhry, V., Premanand, S., Sarma, A., Chandralekha, J., Kumar, K. Y., Kumar, S., & Guleri, R. (2016). Telemedicine in the Himalayas: Operational challenges—A preliminary report. Telemedicine and e-Health, 22(10), 821–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Martini, T., Lynch, M., Weaver, A., & van Vuuren, T. (2016). The humanitarian use of drones as an emerging technology for emerging needs. In The future of drone use (pp. 133–152). The Hague: TMC Asser Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Meier, P. (2012). Ushahidi as a liberation technology. In Liberation technology: Social media and the struggle for democracy (pp. 95–109). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  20. Mesmar, S., Talhouk, R., Akik, C., Olivier, P., Elhajj, I. H., Elbassuoni, S., Armoush, S., et al. (2016). The impact of digital technology on health of populations affected by humanitarian crises: Recent innovations and current gaps. Journal of Public Health Policy, 37(2), 167–200.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Norheim-Hagtun, I., & Meier, P. (2010). Crowdsourcing for crisis mapping in Haiti. Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization, 5(4), 81–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Perakslis, E. D. (2018). Using digital health to enable ethical health research in conflict and other humanitarian settings. Conflict and Health, 12(1), 23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Priye, A., Wong, S., Bi, Y., Carpio, M., Chang, J., Coen, M., Cope, D., et al. (2016). Lab-on-a-drone: Toward pinpoint deployment of smartphone-enabled nucleic acid-based diagnostics for mobile health care. Analytical Chemistry, 88(9), 4651–4660.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Pupic, T. 2017. Innovation for impact: MENA startups are taking on the refugee crisis. Entrepreneur. Accessed 29 July 2018. https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/295806
  25. Staruch, R., Beverly, A., Sarfo-Annin, J. K., & Rowbotham, S. (2018). Calling for the next WHO Global Health initiative: The use of disruptive innovation to meet the health care needs of displaced populations. Journal of Global Health, 8(1), 010303.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. VSee Team in Iraq Kurdistan Refugee Telemedicine Clinic. 2014. VSee. Accessed 27 Aug 2018. https://vsee.com/blog/syrian-refugees-vsee-telemedicine-duhok/
  27. Walji, M. (2015). Bringing telehealth to humanitarian settings. CMAJ, 187, E123–E124.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Zajc, T. Announcing the first deployment of the Iryo system: Improving healthcare for refugees. 2018. Accessed 26 Aug 2018. https://medium.com/iryo-network/announcing-the-first-deployment-of-the-iryo-system-improving-healthcare-for-refugees-bee8c441e7e6
  29. Zarei, M. (2017). Portable biosensing devices for point-of-care diagnostics: Recent developments and applications. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 91, 26–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krish W. Ramadurai
    • 1
  • Sujata K. Bhatia
    • 2
  1. 1.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Chemical & Biomolecular EngineeringUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations