Advertisement

The Humanitarian Relief Paradigm

  • Krish W. Ramadurai
  • Sujata K. Bhatia
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Bioengineering book series (BRIEFSBIOENG)

Abstract

When we close our eyes and picture a humanitarian crisis, we are likely to see an aurora of chaos, conflict, anger, fear, and mortality that lingers over a large group of people. However, we are also likely to see a slew of responding multilateral relief agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that deploy and respond to catastrophe. The deployment of these agencies, whether it be the United Nations (UN), the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the World Health Organization (WHO), etc., generally follows a very long and complex interventional deployment strategy that involves numerous operating components. The aid delivery complex is generally not streamlined and often deals with a wealth of bureaucracy and dissonance between intervening agencies and the host country they are operating in. We can see how complex this process is from previous historical events such as the Haitian Earthquake in 2010 or the Rwandan genocide in 1994, where the very same agencies—i.e., the UN in these cases—that were supposed to help, actually become implicated in not providing adequate relief services. The interventional capacity of any agency is vital in not only stabilizing and promoting conflict resolution but also in the delivery of human health services via humanitarian medicine. Aid and relief practitioners and workers rely on access to equipment, services, and tools in order to provide adequate treatment and palliative care. What we will seek further on in this work is that oftentimes these individuals do not have sufficient access to the resources and materials they need to deliver care and health services to not only treat acute maladies but also chronic ones as well. But first we begin by defining the humanitarian aid complex and its deployment in real-world settings, emergencies, and crises around the world.

References

  1. Alexander, K. A., Sanderson, C. E., Marathe, M., Lewis, B. L., Rivers, C. M., Shaman, J., Drake, J. M., et al. (2015). What factors might have led to the emergence of Ebola in West Africa? PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9(6), e0003652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Annual Report: 2009. Ministry of Health Syria; (2009). Available from: http://www.gov.sy/Default.aspx?tabid=251&language=en-US. Accessed 30 Mar 2017.
  3. Aronson, J. K. (2006). Rare diseases and orphan drugs. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 61(3), 243–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banatvala, N., & Zwi, A. B. (2000). Conflict and health: Public health and humanitarian interventions: Developing the evidence base. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 321(7253), 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banerjee, B. (2016). Why innovate? In Creating innovation leaders (pp. 3–24). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Betts, A., & Bloom, L. (2014). Humanitarian innovation: The state of the art. New York: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA).Google Scholar
  7. Black, R. E., Morris, S. S., & Bryce, J. (2003). Where and why are 10 million children dying every year? The Lancet, 361(9376), 2226–2234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bleck, J., & Michelitch, K. (2015). The 2012 crisis in Mali: Ongoing empirical state failure. African Affairs, 114(457), 598–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chan, E. Y. Y. (2017). Public health humanitarian responses to natural disasters. Abingdon/New York: Taylor & Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chan, E. Y. Y., & Sondorp, E. (2007). Medical interventions following natural disasters: Missing out on chronic medical needs. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 19(1_suppl), 45–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chandran, A., Hyder, A. A., & Peek-Asa, C. (2010). The global burden of unintentional injuries and an agenda for progress. Epidemiologic Reviews, 32(1), 110–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Connolly, M. A., Gayer, M., Ryan, M. J., Salama, P., Spiegel, P., & Heymann, D. L. (2004). Communicable diseases in complex emergencies: Impact and challenges. The Lancet, 364(9449), 1974–1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crisis overview 2016: Humanitarian trends and risks for 2017. 2016. Acaps.Org. Accessed 2 Dec 2017. https://www.acaps.org/special-report/crisis-overview-2016-humanitarian-trends-and-risks-2017
  14. Embrace infant warmer. 2016. T3 Middle East. Accessed 14 Feb 2018. http://t3me.com/en/news/social-sundays-embrace-infant-warmer/
  15. Farmer, P., Almazor, C. P., Bahnsen, E. T., Barry, D., Bazile, J., Bloom, B. R., Bose, N., et al. (2011). Meeting cholera’s challenge to Haiti and the world: A joint statement on cholera prevention and care. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 5(5), e1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fouad, F., Sparrow, A., Tarakji, A., Alameddine, M., El-Jardali, F., Coutts, A., et al. (2017). Health workers and the weaponisation of health care in Syria: A preliminary inquiry for The Lancet –American University of Beirut Commission on Syria. Lancet.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30741-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gamble, L. (2018). Healthcare in war zones: 10 things to know. Beckershospitalreview.Com. Accessed 20 Feb 2018. https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/human-capital-and-risk/healthcare-in-war-zones-10-things-to-know.html
  18. Global Partnerships for Humanitarian Impact and Innovation. 2014. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Accessed 21 Feb 2018. http://blogs.icrc.org/gphi2/wp-content/uploads/sites/96/2015/03/IMD-TEG-Global-Partnerships-Challenges-and-Opportunities-final-26-11-14.pdf
  19. Huq, A., Yunus, M., Sohel, S. S., Bhuiya, A., Emch, M., Luby, S. P., Russek-Cohen, E., Balakrish Nair, G., Bradley Sack, R., & Colwell, R. R. (2010). Simple sari cloth filtration of water is sustainable and continues to protect villagers from cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh. MBio, 1(1), e00034–e00010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leaning, J., Spiegel, P., & Crisp, J. (2011). Public health equity in refugee situations. Conflict and Health, 5(1), 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Levy, B. S., & Sidel, V. W. (Eds.). (2008). War and public health. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Lewin, S., Munabi-Babigumira S., Glenton C., Daniels K., Bosch-Capblanch X., van Wyk B. E., Odgaard-Jensen J., et al. (2010). Lay health workers in primary and community health care for maternal and child health and the management of infectious diseases. The Cochrane Library, 28(3), 243–245.Google Scholar
  23. Lipshultz, E. (2018). Securing health care in war zones. Harvard College Global Health Review. Accessed 16 Feb 2018. https://www.hcs.harvard.edu/hghr/online/securing-health-care-in-war-zones/
  24. Malkki, L. H. (1996). Speechless emissaries: Refugees, humanitarianism, and dehistoricization. Cultural anthropology, 11(3), 377–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McCord, G. C., Liu, A., & Singh, P. (2013). Deployment of community health workers across rural sub-Saharan Africa: Financial considerations and operational assumptions. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 91(4), 244–253b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. O’Donnell, O. (2007). Access to health care in developing countries: Breaking down demand side barriers. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 23(12), 2820–2834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Orach, C. G. (2009). Health equity: Challenges in low income countries (pp. S49–S51). Makerere University Medical School, Uganda: African Health Sciences.Google Scholar
  28. Refugee Health. UNHCR. 1995. Accessed 13 Feb 2018. http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/excom/scaf/3ae68bf424/refugee-health.html
  29. Rodrigues Santos, A. L. (2015).Mind the gap: Designing sustainable healthcare for humanitarian aid. Delft, Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.Google Scholar
  30. Srinivas, S., & Sutz, J. (2008). Developing countries and innovation: Searching for a new analytical approach. Technology in Society, 30(2), 129–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. The human in humanitarian innovation. 2017. MISC. Accessed 22 Feb 2018. https://miscmagazine.com/humanitarian-innovation/
  32. Toole, M. J., & Waldman, R. J. (1993). Refugees and displaced persons: War, hunger, and public health. JAMA, 270(5), 600–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. What is the Cluster Approach? | Humanitarian Response. 2017. Humanitarian Response Info. Accessed 7 Dec 2017. https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/en/about-clusters/what-is-the-cluster-approach

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krish W. Ramadurai
    • 1
  • Sujata K. Bhatia
    • 2
  1. 1.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Chemical & Biomolecular EngineeringUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations