Conclusion: Civil Europe—European Commission Officials as Fabulous Artificers, the European General Public and Complementary Identities

  • Stefanie Pukallus


The conclusion makes three points which arise from the arguments made in Chapters  1 5. These are first, that there was a particular group of individuals (who I call Fabulous Artificers) whose role and efforts in the construction of a European civil identity have largely been overlooked. Second, that one can dispense with the saw that Europe was conceived in a way that suited a cosmopolitan elite and very few others—rather it was designed to suit a future European general public who held civil values in common. Third, that European civil identity was from the start understood to be both complementary and compatible with other identities pertaining to the nation-state and other local loyalties.


  1. Baisnée, O. (2007). The European Public Sphere Does Not Exist (At Least It’s Worth Wondering…). European Journal of Communication, 22(4), 493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barber, J. D. (1972). The Presidential Character: Predicting Performance in the White House. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Burgess, J. P. (2000). Coal, Steel and Spirit: The Double Reading of European unity (1948–1951). In B. Stråth (Ed.), Europe and the Other and Europe as the Other (pp. 421–456). Bruxelles: P.I.E. Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  4. Charteris-Black, J. (2004). Politicians and Rhetoric: The Persuasive Power of Metaphor. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  5. Chira-Pascanut, C. (2014). Discreet Players: Jean Monnet, Transatlantic Networks and Policy-Makers in International Co-operation. Journal of Common Market Studies, 52(6), 1242–1256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Doig, J. W., & Hargrove, E. C. (1987). Leadership and Innovation: Entrepreneurs in Government. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Drechsel, B., & Leggewie, C. (Eds.). (2010). Visual Battlefield Europe? Some preliminary observations. United in Visual Diversity: Images and counterimages of Europe (pp. 7–13). Innsbruck: Studien Verlag.Google Scholar
  8. Ducret, D. (2012). Femmes de dictateur. Paris: Editions Perrins.Google Scholar
  9. Ducret, D. (2013). Femmes de dictateur: Volume 2. Paris: Editions Perrins.Google Scholar
  10. Dyson, B. (2001). Drawing Policy Implications from the ‘Operational Code’ of a ‘New’ Political Actor: Russian President Vladimir Putin. Policy Sciences, 34(3–4), 329–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fiorentini, A.-M. (2006). La conception de l’Europe de Piero malvestiti. Une reflexion historiographique. In K. Rücker & L. Warlouzet (Eds.), Quelle(s) Europe(s)? Nouvelles approaches en histoire de l’intégration européenne (pp. 67–77). Bruxelles: P.I.E. Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  12. Foret, F. (2004). Advertising Europe: The Production of Public Information by the Commission. In A. Smith (Ed.), Politics and the European Commission: Actors, Interdependence, Legitimacy (pp. 156–169). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Gardner, J. W. (1993). On Leadership. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  14. George, A. L., & George, J. L. (1964). Woodrow Wilson and Colonel House: A Personality Study. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  15. Gilbert, M. (2008). Narrating the Process: Questioning the Progressive Story of European Integration. Journal of Common Market Studies, 46(3), 641–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gillingham, J. (1991). Coal, Steel, and the Rebirth of Europe: The Germans and French from Ruhr Conflict to Economic Community 1945–1955. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Greenstein, F. I. (1975). Personality and Politics: Problems of Evidence and Conceptualization. London: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  18. Greenstein, F. I. (1995). Leadership in the Modern Presidency. Harvard: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Greenstein, F. I. (2004). The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to George W. Bush. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Greenstein, F. I. (2015). Presidents and the Dissolution of the Union: Leadership Style from Polk to Lincoln. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Hallstein, W. (1958a, Mars 19–21). Séance du 20 Mars (après-midi) lors de la Session constitutive de l’Assemblée parlementaire européenne. Strasbourg: APE.Google Scholar
  22. Hallstein, W. (1958b, Juli 28). Vortrag, Der politische Gehalt der Europäischen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft, Übersee-Club, No place.Google Scholar
  23. Hargrove, E. (2008). Effective Presidency: Lessons on Leadership from John F. Kennedy to Barack Obama: Lessons on Leadership from John F. Kennedy to George W. Bush. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Harrison, J., & Pukallus, S. (2015). The European Community’s Public Communication Policy 1951–1967. Contemporary European History, 24(2), 233–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kaiser, W. (2007). Christian Democracy and the Origins of European Union. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Karagiannis, Y. (2016). The Origins of the Common Market: Political Economy vs. Hagiography. Journal of Common Market Studies, 54(2), 233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Keohane, N. O. (2016). Western Political Thought. In R. A. W. Rhodes & P. ‘t Hart (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Political Leadership (pp. 25–40). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Koch, D., & Koch, W. (2015). Konrad Adenauer: Der Katholik und sein Europa. Kißlegg: Fe-Medienverlags GmbH.Google Scholar
  29. Kølvraa, C. (2016). European Fantasies: On the EU’s Political Myths and the Affective Potential of Utopian Imaginaries for European Identity. Journal of Common Market Studies, 54(1), 169–184.Google Scholar
  30. Krasno, J., & LaPides, S. (2015). Personality, Political Leadership, and Decision Making: A Global Perspective. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
  31. Lentini, G. (2006). Aux racines chrétiennes de l’Union européenne: Robert Schuman, Konrad Adenauer, Alcide De Gasperi. Nouan-le-Fuzelier: Editions des Béatitudes.Google Scholar
  32. Ludlow, N. P. (1998). Frustrated Ambitions: The European Commission and the Formation of a European Identity. In M.-T. Bitsch, W. Loth, & R. Poidevin (Eds.), Institutions européennes et identités européennes (pp. 307–326). Bruxelles: Bruylant.Google Scholar
  33. Ludlow, N. P. (2006). A Supranational Icarus? Hallstein, the Early Commission and the Search for an Independent Role. In A. Varsori (Ed.), Inside the European Community: Actors and Policies in the European Integration 1957–1972 (pp. 37–53). Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  34. Maas, W. (2007). Creating European Citizens. Lanham, MD and Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  35. MacGregor Burns, J. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  36. Malfatti, F. M. (1971, Janvier). L’Europe des Réalistes, No place.Google Scholar
  37. Malvestiti, P. (1960, Novembre). E Pluribus unum, discours devant l’Assemblée parlementaire, Strasbourg.Google Scholar
  38. Mansholt, S. (1961, September 8). Address to the Europakampagnen, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  39. Mayer, R. (1956, 16 February). Address, New York Council of Foreign Relations, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Mayer, R. (1962, Avril–Juin). Nouvelles Reflexions sur la supra-nationalité. In L. Faure (Ed.), La NEF (pp. 16–18), no. 10. Cahier trimestriel.Google Scholar
  41. Milward, A. (2000). The European Rescue of the Nation-State (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Nugent, N. (2001). The European Commission. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  43. Nugent, N., & Rhinard, M. (2015). The European Commission (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Post, J. M. (2003). The Psychological Assessment of Political Leaders: With Profiles of Saddam Hussein and Bill Clinton. Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pukallus, S. (2016). Representations of European Citizenship Since 1951. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rey, J. (1959a, May 28). Discours à l’occasion de l’ouverture de la 11e foire internationale de Luxembourg, Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  47. Rey, J. (1959b, Juin 12). Discours, séance inaugurale des Journées Médicales de Bruxelles, palais des Académies, Bruxelles.Google Scholar
  48. Rey, J. (1968a, Janvier 23). Intervention au cours du débat politique du Parlement européen, Strasbourg.Google Scholar
  49. Rey, J. (1968b, July 1). Allocution, Union douanière européenne, Bruxelles.Google Scholar
  50. Rey, J. (1969, Septembre 10). Intervention, Assemblée Générale de l’Association des journalistes européens à Bordeaux, Bordeaux.Google Scholar
  51. Rhodes, R. A. W., & ‘t Hart, P. (2016). Puzzles of Political Leadership. In R. A. W. Rhodes & P. ‘t Hart (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Political Leadership (pp. 2–21). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Runciman, D. (2013). The Confidence Trap. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Ryan, A. (2012). On Politics. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  54. Schuman, R. (1961). Le sens de la politique, Article de Robert Schuman (Fonds Maison R.S.).Google Scholar
  55. Schuman, R. (1963). Pour l’Europe. Paris: Editions Nagel Briquet.Google Scholar
  56. Shore, C. (1995). Usurpers or Pioneers? European Commission Bureaucrats and the Question of ‘European Consciousness’. In A. P. Cohen & N. Rapport (Eds.), Questions of Consciousness (pp. 217–236). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Skinner, Q. (2009). A Genealogy of the Modern State. Proceedings of the British Academy, 162, 325–370.Google Scholar
  58. Smith, S. (2012). Political Philosophy. Yale: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Van Middelaar, L. (2013). The Passage to Europe. Yale: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Vasaly, A. (2015). Livy’s Political Philosophy: Power and Personality in Early Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Warner, M. (2005). Publics and Counterpublics. New York: Zone Books.Google Scholar
  62. Wehrer, A. (1959, Juillet 20). La Séance Inaugurale du programme d’Etudes sur les Communautés Européennes de la Faculté Internationale de Droit Comparé, Luxembourg.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefanie Pukallus
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Journalism StudiesUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations