Deterministic-Based Energy Procurement

  • Mahdi Shafieezadeh
  • Adel Akbarimajd
  • Noradin GhadimiEmail author
  • Mojtaba Madadkhani


In this chapter, the deterministic-based energy procurement problem of a large consumer is solved considering the six alternative power sources including bilateral contracts, pool market, wind turbine, photovoltaic system, self-generating units, and energy storage systems in the presence of the time-of-use rate of demand response program. The objective function and constraints are defined to minimize the total power procurement cost. The power price in the pool market is considered as predetermined values to get deterministic results. The time-of-use rate of demand response programs, as an effective way to reduce procurement cost, is implemented to decrease the total power procurement cost. In order to investigate the impact of demand response program, the problem is solved in two discrete case studies as without and with considering demand response program. The problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming and solved by the CPLEX solver under GAMS optimization software. Obtained results in this section can be used as input to some uncertainty modeling methods to investigate the uncertainty of power price in the market, load demand, or any other uncertainty in the problem.


Deterministic power procurement of large consumer Pool market Bilateral contracts Uncertainty modeling Renewable energy Time-of-use rate of demand response program 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahdi Shafieezadeh
    • 1
  • Adel Akbarimajd
    • 2
  • Noradin Ghadimi
    • 3
    Email author
  • Mojtaba Madadkhani
    • 4
  1. 1.Sharif University of TechnologyKnowledge Management OfficeTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Technical EngineeringUniversity of Mohaghegh ArdabiliArdabilIran
  3. 3.Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ardabil BranchIslamic Azad UniversityArdabilIran
  4. 4.Department of Information and Communications TechnologyMalek Ashtar University of TechnologyTehranIran

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