Hybrid Heating and Power Energy Procurement

  • Hossein Khodaei


For a large industrial consumer, heating energy may be required besides the electricity energy. In this case, multi-carrier energy systems or energy hubs can be considered as a flexible way for energy management of the large consumer. In this chapter, optimal operation of multi-carrier energy systems is studied for a large consumer using different heat and power generating sources such as combined heat and power unit and wind farm, thermal and electrical storages, and thermal and electricity energy markets. Also, to reduce energy procurement cost, demand response programs are considered. The uncertainty of heat and electrical prices, wind speed, and load demands is modeled using stochastic programming method considering a set of discrete scenarios. The normal distribution is used to generate scenarios for heat and electrical load demands and prices, while the Weibull distribution is used to provide scenarios of wind speed in order to model power output of the wind turbine.


Multi-carrier energy systems Heat and electrical markets Stochastic programming Heating and power energy procurement Large industrial consumer 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hossein Khodaei
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Engineering, Ardabil BranchIslamic Azad UniversityArdabilIran

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