Reasons for Living

  • Raffaella Calati
  • Emilie Olié
  • Déborah Ducasse
  • Philippe Courtet
Part of the Advances in Mental Health and Addiction book series (AMHA)


Reasons for Living (RFL) are reasons that persons identify for staying alive when otherwise considering suicide, including elements of life such as beliefs and values, interpersonal relationships, and socio-cultural and religious/spiritual concerns. Hence, they are specifically linked to the concept of resilience to suicidality. Aims of this chapter are (1) to provide a broad overview of the link between RFL and suicidal thoughts and behaviors, focusing on the different scales developed for assessing RFL; and (2) to describe specific therapeutic strategies for suicide prevention connected to RFL enhancement.

A literature web search was performed to identify studies focusing on the link between RFL and suicidal thoughts and behaviors from 1983 until June 2017. Since our aim was not to perform a systematic review, the most representative studies have been included.

Eight scales have been described and compared: the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFLI), the Reasons for Living inventory for Adolescents (RFL-A), the College Student Reasons for Living Inventory (CS-RFLI), the Reasons for Living inventory for Young Adults (RFL-YA), the Reasons for Living for Older Adults scale (RFL-OA), the Chinese-language Motivations for Living Inventory (CMLI), the Protective Reasons against Suicide Inventory (PRSI), and the Reasons for Living versus Reasons for Dying Assessment developed in the context of the Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality (CAMS). Most historical evidence was attributed to the most studied measure, the RFLI: overall, a high total score was found to be potentially protective against both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in clinical and non-clinical samples. Promising treatments specifically focusing on RFL enhancement include Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and CAMS, as well as Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapies (MBCT), Positive Psychology (PP), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), and problem-solving therapies.

Further investigation of RFL differences among different cultures and ages is warranted and should also account for major social changes occurring since the development of the first instruments. Moreover, our suggestion is that a focus on RFL has the potential to be integrated into every therapeutic intervention aiming at suicide prevention.


Reasons for living Survival and coping beliefs Moral objections Fear of suicide Family concerns 



Acceptance and Commitment Therapy


Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality


Coping beliefs


Child-related Concerns


College and Future-Related Concerns


Chinese-language Motivations for Living Inventory


College Student Reasons for Living Inventory


Dialectical Behavior Therapy


Experienced Meaning in Life scale


Family Alliance


Fear of Death


Future Expectations


Family Member Support




Future Optimism


Family Relations


Friend Support


Fear of Suicide


Fear of Social Disapproval


Hope for the Future


Life Satisfaction


Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapies


Meaning in Life


Moral Objections


Moral/Religious Objections


Negative Impact on Family Members


Non-Suicidal Self-Injury


Peer-Acceptance and Support


Positive Appraisal Style Theory of Resilience


Positive Psychology


Peer Relations


Protective Reasons against Suicide Inventory


Positive Self-Evaluation


Religious Beliefs


Responsibility to Family


Reasons for Dying


Responsibility to Friends and Family


Reasons for Living


Reasons for Living Inventory for Adolescents


Reasons for Living Inventory


Reasons for Living for Older Adults scale


Reasons for Living Inventory for Young Adults


Suicide Attempt




Suicide Death


Survival and Coping Beliefs


Suicidal Ideation


Suicide-Related Concerns


Teachable Moment Brief Intervention



Raffaella Calati: Thanks to P.G.M., who has represented one of my reasons for living. Dr. Raffaella Calati received a grant from FondaMental Foundation, Créteil, France (2015–2016). Dr. Emilie Olié received research grants from AstraZeneca, Servier, Institut UPSA de la Douleur and fees for presentations at congresses from Janssen, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Servier. Prof. Philippe Courtet received research grants from Servier, and fees for presentations at congresses or participation in scientific boards from Janssen, Lundbeck, Otsuka, Servier.

Conflicts of interest: None.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raffaella Calati
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Emilie Olié
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Déborah Ducasse
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Philippe Courtet
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Neuropsychiatry: Epidemiological and Clinical ResearchINSERM, University of MontpellierMontpellierFrance
  2. 2.Department of Emergency Psychiatry and Acute Care, Lapeyronie HospitalCHU MontpellierMontpellierFrance
  3. 3.FondaMental FoundationCréteilFrance

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