Advertisement

What PCIT Clinicians Need to Know About ASD Assessment

  • Stacy S. ForcinoEmail author
  • Cy B. Nadler
Chapter

Abstract

As a clinician delivering Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) who works with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), you will play some role in assessment of ASD, either peripherally or centrally. This chapter will help orient you to the intake and assessment tasks you will likely encounter, regardless of your role. Questions about ASD that frequently arise during intake are addressed first. Second, surveillance and screening of ASD is reviewed. Third, the components of evidence-based comprehensive diagnostic assessment, including structured and semi-structured parent interviews, collateral reports, objective assessments of core symptoms of ASD, questionnaire assessment of ASD symptoms, cognitive evaluations, assessment of adaptive behavior, and evaluation of language and communication are discussed. Fourth, ongoing assessment and progress monitoring is addressed, including a review of functional behavioral assessment, preference assessment, assessment of problem behavior, and assessment of core symptoms of ASD. Last, we outline ways to help families pre- and post-diagnosis.

Keywords

Autism assessment ASD assessment Parent–Child Interaction Therapy Autism screening ASD screening 

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA Preschool Forms and Profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
  2. Aman, M. G., Singh, N. N., Stewart, A. W., & Field, C. J. (1985). Psychometric characteristics of the aberrant behavior checklist. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 89(5), 492–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Anagnostou, E., Jones, N., Huerta, M., Halladay, A. K., Wang, P., Scahill, L., ... & Sullivan, K. (2015). Measuring social communication behaviors as a treatment endpoint in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 19(5), 622–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bayley, N. (2006). Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development: Administration Manual. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.Google Scholar
  6. Bearss, K., Johnson, C., Smith, T., Lecavalier, L., Swiezy, N., Aman, M., … Sukhodolsky, D. G. (2015). Effect of parent training vs parent education on behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorder: A randomized clinical trial. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 313(15), 1524–1533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beaudoin, A. J., Sébire, G., & Couture, M. (2014). Parent training interventions for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research and Treatment, 2014, 839890.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Beavers, G. A., Iwata, B. A., & Lerman, D. C. (2013). Thirty years of research on the functional analysis of problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46(1), 1–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18(2), 111–126.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Chandler, S., Charman, T., Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D., … Pickles, A. (2007). Validation of the social communication questionnaire in a population cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(10), 1324–1332.Google Scholar
  11. Chowdhury, M., Aman, M. G., Lecavalier, L., Smith, T., Johnson, C., Swiezy, N., … Deng, Y. (2016). Factor structure and psychometric properties of the revised Home Situations Questionnaire for autism spectrum disorder: The Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism, 20(5), 528–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Christensen, D. L., Bilder, D. A., Zahorodny, W., Pettygrove, S., Durkin, M. S., Fitzgerald, R. T., … Yeargin-Allsopp, M. (2016). Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among 4-year-old children in the autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 37(1), 1–8.Google Scholar
  13. Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2012). Social responsiveness scale (SRS). Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  14. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  15. DeLeon, I. G., & Iwata, B. A. (1996). Evaluation of a multiple-stimulus presentation format for assessing reinforcer preferences. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 519–533.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. DeRosa, N. M., & Roane, H. S. (2015). Preference and demand characteristics of reinforcement: practical extensions. In F. D. DiGennara Reed & D. D. Reed (Eds.), Autism service delivery. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  17. Eikeseth, S., Smith, T., Jahr, E., & Eldevik, S. (2007). Outcome for children with autism who began intensive behavioral treatment between ages 4 and 7: A comparison controlled study. Behavior Modification, 31(3), 264–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Elliott, C. D. (2007). Differential ability scales: Introductory and technical handbook (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  19. Eyberg, S. M., & Pincus, D. (1999). Eyberg child behavior inventory and Sutter-Eyberg student behavior inventory-revised: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  20. Fein, D., Barton, M., Eigsti, I. M., Kelley, E., Naigles, L., Schultz, R. T., … Troyb, E. (2013). Optimal outcome in individuals with a history of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(2), 195–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Fisher, W. W., Piazza, C. C., Bowman, L. G., Hagopian, L. P., Owens, J. C., & Slevin, I. (1992). A comparison of two approaches for identifying reinforcers for persons with severe and profound disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 491–498.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Gabrielsen, T. P., Farley, M., Speer, L., Villalobos, M., Baker, C. N., & Miller, J. (2015). Identifying autism in a brief observation. Pediatrics, 135(2), 330–338.Google Scholar
  23. Ganz, J. B., Earles-Vollrath, T. L., Heath, A. K., Parker, R. I., Rispoli, M. J., & Duran, J. B. (2012). A meta-analysis of single case research studies on aided augmentative and alternative communication systems with individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(1), 60–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Grzadzinski, R., Carr, T., Colombi, C., McGuire, K., Dufek, S., Pickles, A., & Lord, C. (2016). Measuring changes in social communication behaviors: Preliminary development of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(7), 2464–2479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hampton, J., & Strand, P. S. (2015). A review of level 2 parent-report instruments used to screen children aged 1.5–5 for autism: A meta-analytic update. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(8), 2519–2530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Harrison, P. L., & Oakland, T. (2015). Adaptive behavior assessment system—Third edition (ABAS-3). Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  27. Huerta, M., & Lord, C. (2012). Diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorders. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 59(1), 103–111.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1994). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(2), 197–209.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Iwata, B. A., & Dozier, C. L. (2008). Clinical application of functional analysis methodology. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 1(1), 3–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Jeter, K., Zlomke, K., Shawler, P., & Sullivan, M. (2017). Comprehensive psychometric analysis of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(5), 1354–1368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Johnson, C. P., Myers, S. M., & the Council on Children with Disabilities. (2007). Identification and evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120(5), 1183–1215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Joshi, G., Petty, C., Wozniak, J., Henin, A., Fried, R., Galdo, M., … Biederman, J. (2010). The heavy burden of psychiatric comorbidity in youth with autism spectrum disorders: A large comparative study of a psychiatrically referred population. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(11), 1361–1370.Google Scholar
  33. Kanne, S. M., Mazurek, M. O., Sikora, D., Bellando, J., Branum-Martin, L., Handen, B., ... & Warren, Z. (2014). The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): initial development of a new tool for treatment outcome measurement. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(1), 168–179.Google Scholar
  34. Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (2004). Kaufman assessment battery for children, second edition: Manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  35. Kelly, M. A., Roscoe, E. M., Hanley, G. P., & Schlichenmeyer, K. (2014). Evaluation of assessment methods for identifying social reinforcers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47(1), 113–135.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Kodak, T., & Piazza, K. (2008). Assessment and behavioral treatment of feeding and sleeping disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 17(4), 887–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Leaf, J. B., Oppenheim-Leaf, M. L., Leaf, R., Courtemanche, A. B., Taubman, M., McEachin, J., … Sherman, J. A. (2012). Observational effects on the preferences of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45(3), 473–483.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. (2012). Autism diagnostic observation schedule: ADOS-2. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  39. Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: A revised version of the Diagnostic Interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685.Google Scholar
  40. Magaña, S., Parish, S. L., Rose, R. A., Timberlake, M., & Swaine, J. G. (2012). Racial and ethnic disparities in quality of health care among children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 50(4), 287–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Mandell, D. S., Wiggins, L. D., Carpenter, L. A., Daniels, J., DiGuiseppi, C., Durkin, M. S., … Shattuck, P. T. (2009). Racial/ethnic disparities in the identification of children with autism spectrum disorders. American Journal of Public Health, 99(3), 493–498.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Mannion, A., & Leader, G. (2013). Comorbidity in autism spectrum disorder: A literature review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(12), 1595–1616.Google Scholar
  43. Masse, J.J. (2009). Examining the efficacy of parent-child interaction therapy with high-functioning autism (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University.Google Scholar
  44. McConachie, H., Parr, J. R., Glod, M., Hanratty, J., Livingstone, N., Oono, I. P., … Garland, D. (2015). Systematic review of tools to measure outcomes for young children with autism spectrum disorder. Health Technology Assessment, 19(41). https://doi.org/10.3310/hta19410 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. McNeil, C., & Hembree-Kigin, T. L. (2010). Parent-child interaction therapy. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  46. McNeil, C. B., Filcheck, H. A., Greco, L. A., Ware, L. M., & Bernard, R. S. (2001). Parent-child interaction therapy: Can a manualized treatment be functional? The Behavior Analyst Today, 2(2), 106.Google Scholar
  47. Milo, J. S., Mace, F. C., & Nevin, J. A. (2010). The effects of constant versus varied reinforcers on preference and resistance to change. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 93(3), 385–394.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Modabbernia, A., Velthorst, E., & Reichenberg, A. (2017). Environmental risk factors for autism: An evidence-based review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Molecular Autism, 8(1), 13.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  50. Pandolfi, V., Magyar, C. I., & Dill, C. A. (2009). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(7), 986–995.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Pandolfi, V., Magyar, C. I., & Dill, C. A. (2012). An initial psychometric evaluation of the CBCL 6–18 in a sample of youth with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(1), 96–108.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Postorino, V., Sharp, W. G., McCracken, C. E., Bearss, K., Burrell, T. L., Evans, A. N., & Scahill, L. (2017). A systematic review and meta-analysis of parent training for disruptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 20(4), 391–402.Google Scholar
  53. Reitman, D., & McMahon, R. J. (2013). Constance “Connie” Hanf (1917–2002): The mentor and the model. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 20(1), 106–116.Google Scholar
  54. Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2006). BASC-2: Behavior assessment system for children (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.Google Scholar
  55. Roane, H. S., Vollmer, T. R., Ringdahl, J. E., & Marcus, B. A. (1998). Evaluation of a brief stimulus preference assessment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 605–620.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Robins, D., Fein, D., & Barton, M. (2009). Modified checklist for autism in toddlers, Revised with follow-up (M-CHAT-R/F) [Measurement instrument]. Retrieved from https://www.mchat.org/_references/mchatDOTorg.pdf and https://www.m-chat.org/_references/M-CHATInterview.pdf.
  57. Robins, D. L., Casagrande, K., Barton, M., Chen, C. A., Dumont-Mathieu, T., & Fein, D. (2014). Validation of the modified checklist for autism in toddlers, revised with follow-up (M-CHAT R/F). Pediatrics, 133(1), 37–45.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Roid, G. H. (2003). Stanford-Binet intelligence scales, fifth edition: Technical manual. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside.Google Scholar
  59. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Berument, S. K., LeCouteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003a). Social Communication Questionnaire: Manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  60. Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003b). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  61. Santhanam, S. P., & Hewitt, L. E. (2015). Evidence-based assessment and autism spectrum disorders: A scoping review. Evidence-Based Communication Assessment and Intervention, 9(4), 140–181.Google Scholar
  62. Schaefer, G. B. (2016). Clinical genetic aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17(2), 180.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Schendel, D. E., DiGuiseppi, C., Croen, L. A., Fallin, M. D., Reed, P. L., Schieve, L. A., … Miller, L. (2012). The study to explore early development (SEED): A multisite epidemiologic study of autism by the Centers for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology (CADDRE) network. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(10), 2121–2140.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Smith, T., & Iadarola, S. (2015). Evidence base update for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44(6), 897–922.Google Scholar
  65. Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Saulnier, C. A. (2016). Vineland adaptive behavior scales, third edition: Manual. Bloomington, MN: NCS Pearson, Inc.Google Scholar
  66. Virués-Ortega, J. (2010). Applied behavior analytic intervention for autism in early childhood: Meta-analysis, meta-regression and dose–response meta-analysis of multiple outcomes. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(4), 387–399.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Vohra, R., Madhavan, S., Sambamoorthi, U., & St Peter, C. (2014). Access to services, quality of care, and family impact for children with autism, other developmental disabilities, and other mental health conditions. Autism, 18(7), 815–826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Wechsler, D. (2012). Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence—Fourth edition technical manual and interpretive manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  69. Wechsler, D. (2014). Wechsler intelligence scale for children—Fifth edition technical and interpretive manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyCalifornia State UniversitySan BernardinoUSA
  2. 2.Division of Developmental and Behavioral SciencesChildren’s Mercy Kansas CityKansas CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Missouri Kansas City School of MedicineKansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations