Advertisement

Internet-Delivered Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (I-PCIT) for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Rationale, Considerations, and Lessons Learned

  • Natalie HongEmail author
  • Leah K. Feinberg
  • Dainelys Garcia
  • Jonathan S. Comer
  • Daniel M. Bagner
Chapter

Abstract

Despite the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), problems with accessibility, availability, and acceptability have historically undermined the broad reach of this valuable intervention. For families of children with ASD, the extent of unmet health care needs is especially concerning—roughly one-third of children with ASD experience problems accessing quality care. Harnessing technology to reach families in their homes not only increases the accessibility of quality treatment, but can also offer additional benefits, such as maximizing the generalizability of care by treating families in their natural settings. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the rationale, considerations, and state of the research for utilizing Internet-delivered PCIT (I-PCIT), with a focus on the treatment of children with ASD. We provide a case illustration and conclude with a summary of lessons learned and future directions for I-PCIT for children with ASD.

Keywords

Autism spectrum disorder Externalizing behavior problems Children Family Internet-delivered Parent-Child Interaction Therapy 

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrade, L. H., Alonso, J., Mneimneh, Z., Wells, J. E., Al-Hamzawi, A., Borges, G., … Kessler, R. C. (2014). Barriers to mental health treatment: Results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys. Psychological Medicine, 44, 1303–1317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bagner, D. M., & Eyberg, S. M. (2007). Parent-child interaction therapy for disruptive behavior in children with mental retardation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 418–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagner, D. M., Rodríguez, G. M., Blake, C. A., & Rosa-Olivares, J. (2013). Home-based preventive parenting intervention for at-risk infants and their families: An open trial. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 20, 334–348.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bagner, D. M., Sheinkopf, S. J., Vohr, B. R., & Lester, B. M. (2010). Parenting intervention for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature: An initial examination. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 31, 209–216.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker, B. L., Blacher, J., Crnic, K. A., & Edelbrock, C. (2002). Behavior problems and parenting stress in families of three year old children with and without developmental delays. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107, 433–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baker, B. L., McIntyre, L. L., Blacher, J., Crnic, K., Edelbrock, C., & Low, C. (2003). Pre-school children with and without developmental delay: Behaviour problems and parenting stress over time. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47, 217–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauminger, N., Solomon, M., & Rogers, S. J. (2010). Externalizing and internalizing behaviors in ASD. Autism Research, 3, 101–112.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Budd, K. S., Hella, B., Bae, H., Meyerson, D. A., & Watkin, S. C. (2011). Delivering parent–child interaction therapy in an urban community clinic. Cognitive & Behavioral Practice, 18, 502–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burke, J. D. (2012). An affective dimension within oppositional defiant disorder symptoms among boys: Personality and psychopathology outcomes into early adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 53, 1176–1183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burke, J. D., Rowe, R., & Boylan, K. (2014). Functional outcomes of child and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in adult men. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 264–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/prevalence/use-of-mental-health-services-and-treatment-among-children.shtml
  15. Chasson, G. S., Harris, G. E., & Neely, W. J. (2007). Cost comparison of early intensive behavioral intervention and special education for children with autism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 401–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chiri, G., & Warfield, M. (2012). Unmet need and problems accessing core health care services for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 16, 1081–1091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chou, T., Bry, L. J., & Comer, J. S. (2017). Overcoming traditional barriers only to encounter new ones: Doses of caution and direction as technology-enhanced treatments begin to “go live”. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 24, 241–244.Google Scholar
  18. Chou, T., Comer, J. S., Turvey, C. L., Karr, A., & Spargo, G. (2016). Technological considerations for the delivery of real-time child telemental healthcare. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 26, 192–197.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Comer, J. S. (2015). Introduction to the special section: Applying new technologies to extend the scope and accessibility of mental health care. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 22, 253–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Comer, J. S., & Barlow, D. H. (2014). The occasional case against broad dissemination and implementation: Retaining a role for specialty care in the delivery of psychological treatments. American Psychologist, 69, 1–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Comer, J. S., Chow, C., Chan, P., Cooper-Vince, C., & Wilson, L. A. S. (2013). Psychosocial treatment efficacy for disruptive behavior problems in young children: A meta-analytic examination. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 26–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Comer, J. S., Furr, J. M., Cooper-Vince, C., Madigan, R. J., Chow, C., Chan, P., … Eyberg, S. M. (2015). Rationale and considerations for the Internet-based delivery of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 22, 302–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Comer, J. S., Furr, J. M., Kerns, C. E., Miguel, E., Coxe, S., Elkins, R. M., … Freeman, J. B. (2017). Internet-delivered, family-based treatment for early-onset OCD: A pilot randomized trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85, 178–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Comer, J. S., Furr, J. M., Miguel, E. M., Cooper-Vince, C. E., Carpenter, A. L., Elkins, R. M., … Chase, R. (2017). Remotely delivering real-time parent training to the home: An initial randomized trial of Internet-delivered parent-child interaction therapy (I-PCIT). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85, 909–917.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cummings, J. R., Lynch, F. L., Rust, K. C., Coleman, K. J., Madden, J. M., Owen-Smith, A. A., … Coren, L. A. (2016). Health services utilization among children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 910–920.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. de Marchena, A. B., Eigsti, I., & Yerys, B. E. (2015). Brief report: Generalization weaknesses in verbally fluent children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 3370–3376.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Donenberg, G., & Baker, B. L. (1993). The impact of young children with externalizing behaviors on their families. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 179–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Doss, B., Feinberg, L. K., Rothman, K., Roddy, M. K., & Comer, J. S. (2017). Using technology to enhance and expand interventions for couples and families: Conceptual and methodological considerations. Journal of Family Psychology, 31, 983–993.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eisenhower, A. S., Baker, B. L., & Blacher, J. (2005). Preschool children with intellectual disability: Syndrome specificity, behaviour problems, and maternal well-being. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49, 657–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Estes, A., Munson, J., Dawson, G., Koehler, E., Zhou, X. H., & Abbott, R. (2009). Parenting stress and psychological functioning among mothers of preschool children with autism and developmental delay. Autism, 13, 375–387.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eyberg, S. M., & Funderburk, B. (2011). Parent-child interaction therapy protocol. Gainesville, FL: PCIT International Publishing Retrieved from pcit.org Google Scholar
  32. Eyberg, S. M., Nelson, M. M., & Boggs, S. R. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with disruptive behavior. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37, 215–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Eyberg, S. M., Nelson, M. M., Ginn, N. C., Bhuiyan, N., & Boggs, S. R. (2013). Dyadic parent child interaction coding system: Comprehensive manual for research and training (4th ed.). Gainesville, FL: PCIT International.Google Scholar
  34. Eyberg, S. M., & Pincus, D. (1999). Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory and Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  35. Galanter, R. G., Self-Brown, S., Valente, J. R., Dorsey, S., Whitaker, D. J., Bertuglia-Haley, M., & Prieto, M. (2012). Effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy delivered to at-risk families in the home setting. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 34, 177–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ginn, N. C., Clionsky, L. N., Eyberg, S. M., Warner-Metzger, C., & Abner, J. (2017). Child directed interaction training for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Parent and child outcomes. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 48, 101–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Greene, R. W., Biederman, J., Zerwas, S., Monuteaux, M. C., Goring, J. C., & Faraone, S. V. (2002). Psychiatric comorbidity, family dysfunction, and social impairment in referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1214–1224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Health Resources & Services Administration. (2013). Report to Congress on the Nation’s Substance Abuse and Mental Health Workforce Issues. Retrieved from https://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/PEP13-RTC-BHWORK/PEP13-RTC-BHWORK.pdf
  39. Hilty, D. M., Ferrer, D. C., Parish, M. B., Johnston, B., Callahan, E. J., & Yellowlees, P. M. (2013). The effectiveness of telemental health: A 2013 review. Telemedicine Journal and E-Health, 19, 444–454.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Joshi, G., Petty, C., Wozniak, J., Henin, A., Fried, R., Galdo, M., … Biederman, J. (2010). The heavy burden of psychiatric comorbidity in youth with autism spectrum disorders: A large comparative study of a psychiatrically referred population. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1361–1370.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaat, A. J., & Lecavalier, L. (2013). Disruptive behavior disorders in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: A review of the prevalence, presentation, and treatment. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7, 1579–1594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kaminski, J. W., & Claussen, A. H. (2017). Evidence base update for psychosocial treamtents for disruptive behaviors in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 46, 477–499.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kazdin, A. E. (2003). Psychotherapy for children and adolescents. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 253–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Keenan, K., & Wakschlag, L. S. (2000). More than the terrible twos: The nature and severity of behavior problems in clinic-referred preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 33–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. King, S. M., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2004). Childhood externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in the prediction of early substance use. Addiction, 99, 1548–1559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Krauss, M. W., Gulley, S., Sciegaj, M., & Wells, N. (2003). Access to specialty medical care for children with mental retardation, autism, and other special health care needs. Mental Retardation, 41, 329–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lesack, R., Bearss, K., Celano, M., & Sharp, W. G. (2014). Parent–Child Interaction Therapy and autism spectrum disorder: Adaptations with a child with severe developmental delays. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, 2, 68–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Masse, J. J., McNeil, C. B., Wagner, S., & Quetsch, L. B. (2016). Examining the efficacy of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy with Children on the Autism Spectrum. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 2508–2525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McHugh, R. K., & Barlow, D. H. (2010). The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments: A review of current efforts. American Psychologist, 65, 73–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Morse, G., Salyers, M. P., Rollins, A. L., Monroe-DeVita, M., & Pfahler, C. (2012). Burnout in mental health services: A review of the problem and its remediation. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 39, 341–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Myers, K. M., Nelson, E. L., Hilty, D. M., Rabinowitz, T., Barwell, S. S., Bernard, J., … Wright, S. (2017). American Telemedicine Association Practice Guidelines for Telemental Health with Children and Adolescents. Telemedicine and e-Health, 23, 779–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Owens, P. L., Hoagwood, K., Horowitz, S. M., Leaf, P. J., Poduska, J. M., Kellam, S. G., & Ialongo, N. S. (2002). Barriers to children’s mental health services. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 731–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Polycom. (2001). Video communications: Building blocks for a simpler deployment. Retrieved from http://learningcenter.polycom.com/plconline/courses/EndUser/pvx/download/vc_deploy.pdf
  54. Soderstrom, H., Sjodin, A., Carlstedt, A., & Forsman, A. (2004). Adult psychopathic personality with childhood-onset hyperactivity and conduct disorder: A central problem constellation in forensic psychiatry. Psychiatry Research, 121, 271–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Solomon, M., Ono, M., Timmer, S., & Goodlin-Jones, B. (2008). The effectiveness of Parent Child Interaction Therapy for Families of Children on the Autism Spectrum. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1767–1776.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Talebi, M., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2016). The stigma of seeking help for mental health issues: Mediating roles of support and coping and the moderating role of symptom profile. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 46, 470–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Thomas, R., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2007). Behavioral outcomes of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy and Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 475–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. United States Census Bureau. (2012). Computer and Internet access in the United States: 2012. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2012/demo/computer-internet/computer-use-2012.html
  59. Ware, L. M., McNeil, C. B., Masse, J., & Stevens, S. (2008). Efficacy of in-home Parent–Child Interaction Therapy. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 30, 99–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M. J., & Hammond, M. (2004). Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: Intervention outcomes for parent, child, and teacher training. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 33, 105–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natalie Hong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Leah K. Feinberg
    • 1
  • Dainelys Garcia
    • 1
  • Jonathan S. Comer
    • 1
  • Daniel M. Bagner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Center for Children and FamiliesFlorida International UniversityMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations