Insights from Northern European Countries and Regions
Cities and regions have a number of different strategies aiming to improve the urban environment and economic activities. The concepts of innovation and smart city development are among the key phrases or catchwords. These strategies apply to similar topics and the goal setting the present is very alike. The cloning idea is visible, even though similarities are probably caused by the European Union level strategies that function as guidelines for national policies and strategies. As stated, environment and sustainability are strongly present in smart city agenda. Therefore, studied strategies expand the smart city definition to include traditional problems of urban growth. This chapter focuses on generating insights from Northern European countries and regions.
KeywordsInnovation policy Statistics Strategies European Union Estonia Denmark Finland Sweden
- Borins, S. (1998). Innovating with integrity: How local heroes are transforming American government. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
- City of Copenhagen. (2017). The city of Copenhagen’s business and growth policy 2015–2020. Available online https://international.kk.dk/sites/international.kk.dk/files/uploadedfiles/Business_and_%20Growth_%20Policy.pdf.
- City of Helsinki. (2017). The most functional city in the world. Helsinki city strategy 2017–2021. Available online https://www.hel.fi/static/helsinki/kaupunkistrategia/strategia-en-2017-2021.pdf.
- City of Stockholm. (2017). Strategi för Stockholm som smart och uppkopplad stad. Available online http://www.stockholm.se/PageFiles/130302/Strategi-for-en-smart-och-uppkoppladstad-Stockholms-stad.pdf.
- City of Tallinn. (2013). Tallinn enterprise and innovation strategy 2014–2018. Available online http://www.tallinn.ee/eng/investor/Tallinn-Enterprise-and-Innovation-Strategy-2014-2018.
- Dodge, M., & Kitchin, R. (2001). Mapping cyberspace. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Eurostat. (2018). Database. Available at https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database.
- Georghiou, L., Smith, K., Toivainen, O., & Ylä-Anttila, P. (2003). Evaluation of the Finnish innovation support system. Publications 5. Helsinki: Ministry of Trade and Industry Finland.Google Scholar
- Government of Finland. (2006). A renewing, human-centric and competitive Finland. The national knowledge society strategy 2007–2015. Helsinki: Prime Minister’s Office.Google Scholar
- Hisrich, R., Peters, M., & Shepherd, D. (2005). Entrepreneurship (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Inkinen, T. (2015). Reflections on the innovative city: Examining three innovative locations in a knowledge bases framework. Journal of Open Innovation, 1(8), 1–23.Google Scholar
- Inkinen, T., & Vaattovaara, M. (2007). Technology and knowledge-based development. Helsinki metropolitan area as a creative region. ACRE report 2.5. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Inkinen, T., & Vaattovaara, M. (2010). Creative urban region in the Nordic country. Combining tradition with development in Helsinki. In K. Metaxiotis, F. J. Carrillo & T. Yigitcanlar (Eds.), Knowledge-based development of cities and societies: Integrated multi-level approaches (pp. 196–210). Hershey: IGI Global.Google Scholar
- Makkonen, T., & Inkinen, T. (2015). Geographical and temporal variation of regional development and innovation in Finland. Fennia. International Journal of Geography, 193(1), 134–147.Google Scholar
- Marrocu, E., & Paci, R. (2012). Education or creativity: What matters most for economic performance? Economic Geography, 88(4), 369–401.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2018). Programme for international student assessment. Available online www.oecd.org/pisa/.
- Reddick, C. (Ed.). (2010). Comparative e-government: An examination of e-government adoption across countries. Integrated Series in Information Systems, 25. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Rodríguez Bolívar, M. P. (Ed.). (2018). Smart technologies for smart governments. Transparency, efficiency and organizational issues. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Wessner, C. (2009). Government programs to encourage innovation by start-ups & SMEs: The role of innovation awards. In S. Nagaoka, M. Kondo, K. Flamm, & C. Wessner (Eds.), 21st century innovation systems for Japan and the United States: Lessons from a decade of change (pp. 77–95). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Weerakkody, V., & Reddick, C. G. (Eds.). (2012). Public sector transformation through e-government: Experiences from Europe and North America. London: Routledge.Google Scholar