Advertisement

Middle Toddlerhood: Autonomy and Peer Awareness in the Context of Families and Child Care

  • Christine N. LippardEmail author
  • Karen M. La Paro
Chapter

Abstract

Middle toddlerhood is a period marked by the development of autonomy and resulting growth in peer awareness. This chapter discusses how development in the physical, cognitive, and language domains interacts with emotional and social development, specifically with the areas of autonomy and peer awareness. Further, the importance of responsive caregiving that supports toddlers in feeling secure as they explore the environment around them and their own capabilities is emphasized. This responsive caregiving, particularly in the context of experience expectable environments, promotes toddlers’ optimal social and emotional development. Risks to development such as toxic stress, particularly for toddlers whose families are homeless or who are first- or second-generation immigrants, are discussed. Practical strategies for helping toddlers process their emotions (e.g., name it, claim it, explain it) and for promoting positive, responsive relationships across family and child care contexts are described. Finally, this chapter concludes with examples of current tools to assess toddlers’ social and emotional development and child care experiences and environment.

Keywords

Autonomy Peer awareness Responsive Expectable environment 

References

  1. Bandel, E., Aikens, N., Vogel, C. A., Boller, K., & Murphy, L. (2014). Observed quality and psychometric properties of the CLASS-T in the early head start family and child experiences survey. OPRE technical brief 2014-34. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  2. Barr, R., & Hayne, H. (2003). It’s not what you know, it’s who you know: Older siblings facilitate imitation during infancy. International Journal of Early Years Education, 11, 7–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966976032000066055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bloom, K., Russell, A., & Wassenberg, K. (1987). Turn taking affects the quality of infant vocalizations. Journal of Child Language, 14, 211–227. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900012897 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment (Rev. ed.). New York, NY: Basic.Google Scholar
  5. Bricker, D., Davis, M. S., & Squires, J. (2004). Mental health screening in young children. Infants & Young Children, 17, 129–144. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/iycjournal/pages/default.aspx CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Briggs, R. D., Stettler, E. M., Johnson Silver, E., Schrag, R. D. A., Nayak, M., Chinitz, S., & Racine, A. D. (2012). Social-emotional screening for infants and toddlers in primary care. Pediatrics, 129(2), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2010-2211 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Briggs-Gowan, M. J., & Carter, A. S. (2006). Manual for the brief infant-toddler social & emotional assessment-BITSEA—version 2. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  8. Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Carter, A. S., Irwin, J. R., Wachtel, K., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2004). The brief infant-toddler social and emotional assessment: Screening for social-emotional problems and delays in competence. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 29, 143–155. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsh017 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. In W. Damons (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (pp. 793–828). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Brophy-Herb, H. E., Stansbury, K., Bocknek, E., & Horodynski, M. A. (2012). Modeling maternal emotion-related socialization behaviors in a low-income sample: Relations with toddlers’ self-regulation. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27, 352–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brownell, C. A., Ramani, G. B., & Zerwas, S. (2006). Becoming a social partner with peers: Cooperation and social understanding in one- and two-year-olds. Child Development, 77, 803–821. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.t01-1-.x-i1 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Brownell, C. A., Svetlova, M., & Nichols, S. (2009). To share or not to share: When do toddlers respond to another’s needs? Infancy, 14, 117–130. https://doi.org/10.1080/15250000802569868 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Burchinal, M. R., Roberts, J. E., Riggins, R., Jr., Zeisel, S. A., Neebe, E., & Brynat, D. (2000). Relating quality of center-based child care to early cognitive and language development longitudinally. Child Development, 71, 339–357. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00149 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Butterfield, P. M. (2002). Child care is rich in routines. ZERO TO THREE, 22, 29–32.Google Scholar
  15. Carta, J. (2009). The pyramid infant-toddler observation scale (TPITOS). Lawrence, KS: Technical Assistance Center of Social Emotional Interventions.Google Scholar
  16. Case-Smith, J. (2013). Systematic review of interventions to promote social–emotionaldevelopment in young children with or at risk for disability. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(4), 395–404. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2013.004713 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Center on the Developing Child. (2007). The Science of Early Childhood Development (InBrief). Retrieved from www.developingchild.harvard.edu.
  18. Child Trends. (2014). Immigrant children. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=immigrant-children.
  19. Child Trends. (2015). Homeless children and youth: Indicators on children and youth. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/indicators/homeless-children-and-youth/.
  20. Copen, C. E., Thoma, M. E., & Kirmeyer, S. (2015). Interpregnancy intervals in the United States: Data from the birth certificate and the national survey of family growth. National Vital Statistics Report, 64. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  21. Cost, Quality, & Child Outcomes Study Team. (1995). Cost, quality and child outcomes in child care centers: Executive summary. Denver, CO: University of Colorado at Denver, Economics Department.Google Scholar
  22. Crosby, D. A., & Hatfield, E. B. (2008). Immigrants’ access to public assistance: Missed opportunities following welfare reform. ZERO TO THREE, 29, 31–38.Google Scholar
  23. David, D. H., Gelberg, L., & Suchman, N. E. (2012). Implications of homelessness for parenting young children: A preliminary review from a developmental attachment perspective. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.20333 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. de Wolff, M. S., Theunissen, M. H., Vogels, A. G., & Reijneveld, S. A. (2013). Three questionnaires to detect psychosocial problems in toddlers: A comparison of the BITSEA, ASQ: SE, and KIPPPI. Academic Pediatrics, 13(6), 587–592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2013.07.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dunfield, K., Kuhlmeier, V. A., O’Connell, L., & Kelley, E. (2011). Examining the diversity of prosocial behavior: Helping, sharing, and comforting in infancy. Infancy, 16, 227–247. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7078.2010.00041.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eckerman, C. O., Davis, C. C., & Didow, S. M. (1989). Toddlers’ emerging ways of achieving social coordinations with a peer. Child Development, 60, 440–453. https://doi.org/10.2307/1130988 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Fagot, B. I. (1997). Attachment, parenting, and peer interactions of toddler children. Developmental Psychology, 33, 489–499. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.33.3.489 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Feldman, R., Eidelman, A. I., & Rotenberg, N. (2004). Parenting stress, infant emotion regulation, maternal sensitivity, and the cognitive development of triplets: A model for parent and child influences in a unique ecology. Child Development, 75, 1774–1791. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00816.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fernald, A., Marchman, V. A., & Weisleder, A. (2013). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 16, 234–248. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12019 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Frampton, K. L., Perlman, M., & Jenkins, J. M. (2009). Caregivers’ use of metacognitive language in child care centers: Prevalence and predictors. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24, 248–262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2009.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gibbs, E. D., Teti, D. M., & Bond, L. A. (1987). Infant-sibling communication: Relationships to birth-spacing and cognitive and linguistic development. Infant Behavior and Development, 10, 307–323. https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-6383(87)90019-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gloeckler, L., & Cassell, J. (2012). Teacher practices with toddlers during social problem solving opportunities. Early Childhood Education Journal, 40, 251–257. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-011-0495-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gloeckler, L. R., Cassell, J. M., & Malkus, A. J. (2014). An analysis of teacher practices with toddlers during social conflicts. Early Child Development and Care, 184(5), 749–765. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2013.818988 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gonzalez-Mena, J., & Eyer, D. (2014). Infants, toddlers, and caregivers: A curriculum of respectful, responsive, relationship-based care and education (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  35. Grossman, K., Grossman, K. E., Fremmer-Bombik, E., Kindler, H., Scheuerer-Englisch, H., & Zimmermann, P. (2002). The uniqueness of the child-father attachment relationship: Fathers’ sensitive and challenging play as a pivotal variable in a 16-year longitudinal study. Social Development, 11, 307–331. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00202 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gunnar, M. R., Brodersen, L., Nachmias, M., Buss, K., & Rigatuso, J. (1996). Stress reactivity and attachment security. Developmental Psychobiology, 29, 191–204. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2302(199604)29:3<191::AID-DEV1>3.0.CO;2-M CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gunnar, M. R., & Cheatham, C. L. (2003). Brain and behavior interface: Stress and the developing brain. Infant Mental Health Journal, 24, 195–211. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.10052 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hallam, R., Fouts, H., Bargreen, K., & Caudle, L. (2009). Quality from a toddler’s perspective: A bottom-up examination of classroom experiences. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 11. Retrieved from http://ecrp.uiuc.edu
  39. Harms, T., Cryer, D., & Clifford, R. (1990). Infant and toddler environmental rating scale. ITERS. New York: Teachers College.Google Scholar
  40. Harms, T., Cryer, D., & Clifford, R. M. (2003). Infant/toddler environment rating scale-revised edition (ITERS-R). New York, NY: Teachers College.Google Scholar
  41. Harrist, A. W., & Waugh, R. M. (2002). Dyadic synchrony: Its structure and function in children’s development. Developmental Review, 22, 555–592. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0273-2297(02)00500-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hatfield, B. E., Hestenes, L. L., Kintner-Duffy, V., & O’Brien, M. (2013). Classroom emotional support predicts differences in preschool children’s cortisol and alpha-amylase levels. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(2), 347–356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecrq.2012.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hatfield, B. E., & Williford, A. P. (2017). Cortisol patterns for young children displaying disruptive behavior: Links to a teacher-child, relationship-focused intervention. Prevention Science, 18, 40–49. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-016-0693-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Helburn, S. W. (1995). Cost, quality, and child outcomes in child care centers, technical report. Denver, CO: University of Colorado at Denver, Center for Research in Economic and Social Policy, Department of Economics.Google Scholar
  45. Herbert, J., & Hayne, H. (2000). Memory retrieval by 18-30 month-olds: Age-related changes in representational flexibility. Developmental Psychology, 36, 473–484. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.36.4.473 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Honig, A. S., & Wittmer, D. S. (1982). Teachers questions to male and female toddlers. Early Child Development and Care, 9, 19–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/0300443820090102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hyson, M. (2004). The emotional development of young children: Building an emotion-centered urriculum (p. 26). New York, NY: The Teachers College Press. Education and Development.Google Scholar
  48. Knudsen, E. I. (2004). Sensitive periods in the development of the brain and behavior. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 1412–1425. https://doi.org/10.1162/0898929042304796 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kontos, S. (1999). Preschool teachers’ talk, roles, and activity settings during free play. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 14, 363–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(99)00016-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kostelnik, M. J., Stein, L. C., & Whiren, A. P. (1988). Children’s self-esteem: The verbal environment. Childhood Education, 65, 29–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/00094056.1988.10522389 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. La Paro, K. M., & Gloeckler, L. (2016). The context of child care for toddlers: The “experience expectable environment”. Early Childhood Education Journal, 44(2), 147–153. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-015-0699-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. La Paro, K. M., Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2012). Classroom assessment scoring system (CLASS) manual, toddler. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  53. La Paro, K. M., Williamson, A. C., & Hatfield, B. (2014). Assessing quality in toddler classrooms using the CLASS-toddler and the ITERS-R. Early Education and Development, 25(6), 875–893. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2014.883586 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lamb, M. E. (1978). Interactions between eighteen-month-olds and their preschool-aged siblings. Child Development, 49, 51–59. https://doi.org/10.2307/1128592 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Leerkes, E. M., Blankson, N. A., & O’Brien, M. (2009). Differential effects of maternal sensitivity to infant distress and nondistress on social-emotional functioning. Child Development, 80, 762–775. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01296.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Leidy, M. S., Schofield, T. J., & Parke, R. D. (2013). Fathers’ contributions to children’s social development. In N. J. Cabrera & C. S. Tamis-LeMonda’s (Eds.), Handbook of father involvement: Multidisciplinary perspectives, 2 (pp. 151–167). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Lippard, C. N., Riley, K. L., & Hughes-Belding, K. (2016). Observing toddlers’ individual experiences in classrooms: Initial use of the parenting interactions with children: Checklist of observations linked to outcomes. Infant Mental Health Journal, 37, 549–559. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21584 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P. R., & Perge, D. (2003). Attachment theory and affect regulation: The dynamics, development, and cognitive consequences of attachment-related strategies. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 77–102. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024515519160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mortensen, J. A., & Barnett, M. A. (2015). Teacher–child interactions in infant/toddler child care and socioemotional development. Early Education and Development, 26(2), 209–229. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2015.985878 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network. (1997). Child care in the first year of life. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 43, 340–360. Retrieved from http://www.wsupress.wayne.edu/journals/detail/merrill-palmer-quarterly Google Scholar
  61. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network. (2000). Characteristics and quality of child care for toddler and preschoolers. Applied Developmental Science, 4, 116–135. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532480XADS0403_2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network. (2002). Early child care and children’s development prior to school entry: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. American Educational Research Journal, 39, 133–164. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312039001133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. National Research Council & Institute of Medicine. (2000). Early childhood intervention: Views from the field. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  64. National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2004). Young children develop in an environment of relationships. Working paper 1. Retrieved from http://www.developingchild.harvard.edu.
  65. National Scientific Council on the Developing Child (NSCDC). (2005/2014). Excessive stress disrupts the architecture of the brain: Working paper 3. Updated edition. Retrieved from http://www.developingchild.harvard.edu.
  66. Newton, E., Liable, D., Carlo, G., Steele, J., & McGinley, M. (2014). Do sensitive parents foster kind children, or vise versa? Bidirectional influences between children’s social behavior and parental sensitivity. Developmental Psychology, 50, 1808–1816. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036495 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Pan, B. A., Rowe, M. L., Singer, J. D., & Snow, C. E. (2005). Maternal correlates of growth in toddler vocabulary production in low-income families. Child Development, 76, 763–782. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00876.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Pansofar, N., & Vernon-Feagan, L. (2006). Mother and father language input to young children: Contributions to later language development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 571–587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2006.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Parlakian, R. (2010). Meeting the needs of infants, toddlers, and families experiencing homelessness. Washington, DC: ZERO TO THREE Press.Google Scholar
  70. Perry, B. D., Pollard, R. A., Blakely, T. L., Baker, W. L., & Vigilante, D. (1995). Childhood trauma, the neurobiology of adaptation, and “use-dependent” development of the brain: How “states” become “traits”. Infant Mental Health Journal, 16, 271–291. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0355(199524)16:4<271::AID=IMHJ2280160404>3.0.CO:2-B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Phillips, D., McCartney, K., & Scarr, S. (1987). Child-care quality and children’s social development. Developmental Psychology, 23(4), 537–543. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.23.4.537 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Phillips, D. A., & Lowenstein, A. E. (2011). Early care, education, and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 483–500. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.031809.130707 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Phillips, D. A., & Shonkoff, J. P. (Eds.). (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  74. Piaget, J. (1964). Development and learning. In R. E. Ripple & V. N. Rockcastle (Eds.), Piaget rediscovered (pp. 7–20). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Pianta, R. C., Nimetz, S. L., & Bennett, E. (1997). Mother-child relationships, teacher-child relationships, and school outcomes in preschool and kindergarten. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12, 263–280. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(97)90003-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ray, S. (2006). Mother-toddler interactions during child-focused activity in transitional housing. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 20, 81–97. https://doi.org/10.1080/J003v20n03_06 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Redford, J., Desrochers, D., Ralph, J., & Hoyer, K. M. (2017). The years before school: Children’s nonparental care arrangements from 2001–2012. Statistics in Brief. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017096.pdf
  78. Romijn, A., & Kousemaker, N. P. J. (2001). De KIPPPI-methode voor vroegtijdige onderkenning. Revisie en nadere verantwoording [The KIPPPI questionnaire for early detection. Revision and further justification.]. Leiden, The Netherlands: University of Leiden.Google Scholar
  79. Snow, W. C., & McGaha, C. G. (2003). Infant Development (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  80. Squires, J., Bricker, D. D., & Twombly, E. (2015). ASQ-SE-2 user’s guide. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
  81. Sroufe, L. A. (1988). The role of infant–caregiver attachment in development. In J. Belsky & T. Nezworski (Eds.), Clinical implications of attachment (pp. 18–38). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  82. Sroufe, L. A. (2000). Early relationships and the development of children. Infant Mental Health Journal, 21(1–2), 67–74. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0355(200001/04)21:1/2<67::AID-IMHJ8>3.0.CO:2-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Taumoepeau, M., & Ruffman, T. (2008). Stepping stones to others’ minds: Maternal talk relates to child mental state language and emotion understanding at 15, 24, and 33 months. Child Development, 79, 284–302. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01126.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Teti, D. M., Bond, L. A., & Gibbs, E. D. (1986). Sibling-created experiences: Relationships to birth-spacing and infant cognitive development. Infant Behavior and Development, 9, 27–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-6383(86)90036-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Thomason, A. C., & La Paro, K. M. (2009). Measuring the quality of teacher–child interactions in toddler child care. Early Education and Development, 20, 285–304. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409280902773351 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Troseth, G. L., Saylor, M. M., & Archer, A. H. (2006). Young children’s use of video as socially relevant information. Child Development, 77, 786–799. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00903.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Walsh, F. (2012). Normal family processes: Growing diversity and complexity. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  88. Warren, S. L., & Simmens, S. J. (2005). Predicting toddler anxiety/depressive symptoms: Effects of caregiver sensitivity on temperamentally vulnerable children. Infant Mental Health Journal, 26, 40–55. https://doi.org/10.1002/imhj.20034 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Wittmer, D. S., & Petersen, S. H. (2014). Infant and toddler development and responsive program planning: A relationship approach. Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Iowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  2. 2.University of North Carolina at GreensboroGreensboroUSA

Personalised recommendations