Phenomenological Constitutive Models for Polar Ice

  • Ryszard StaroszczykEmail author
Part of the GeoPlanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences book series (GEPS)


This chapter deals with the analysis of the behaviour of polar ice by applying a phenomenological approach, in which the macroscopic creep response of ice is determined solely in terms of the macroscopic stress, strain-rate, and deformation. The microscopic mechanism of re-orientation of individual crystals during the deformation of ice is also accounted for in order to model the evolution of the internal structure of the material. General forms of frame-indifferent constitutive flow laws, which express either the stress in terms of the strain-rate, or the strain-rate in terms of the stress, are derived on the assumption that the type of anisotropy which develops in polar ice sheets is close to orthotropy. The parameters in the derived constitutive models are determined by the correlation of model predictions with available experimental data. The phenomenological approach is also applied to model the mechanism of the dynamic recrystallization of polar ice. All constitutive models developed in this chapter are applied to simulate the evolution of the macroscopic viscous properties of polycrystalline ice with increasing shear and axial strains, and the results of these simulations are presented for various sets of material parameters defining the properties of ice.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Hydro-EngineeringPolish Academy of SciencesGdańskPoland

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