Advertisement

Migraine and Use of Combined Hormonal Contraception

  • Francesca Pistoia
  • Simona SaccoEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Headache book series (HEAD)

Abstract

Migraine onset and activity in women are influenced by the fluctuations of sex hormone levels, particularly estrogen. According to the “estrogen withdrawal hypothesis,” migraine episodes are precipitated by a decline in estrogen, as may occur in the menstrual period [1]. Therefore, exogenous estrogens such as those contained in combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) might interfere with the course of headache in women with migraine. In most cases, the use of CHC leads to an exacerbation or even a new onset of migraine, while in other cases, CHC can lead to an improvement or even be used as migraine prophylaxis (e.g., menstrual migraine [MM]). A complex and still unknown interaction between the vascular actions of estrogens and the vascular alterations of subjects with migraine may also explain the highly increased risk of cardiovascular events among women with migraine using CHC [2].

References

  1. 1.
    Somerville BW. The role of estradiol withdrawal in the etiology of menstrual migraine. Neurology. 1972;22(4):355–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sacco S, Ricci S, Degan D, Carolei A. Migraine in women: the role of hormones and their impact on vascular diseases. J Headache Pain. 2012;13(3):177–89.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Speroff L, Darney P. The history of contraception. In: Speroff L, Darney P, editors. A clinical guide for contraception. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2011. p. 19–35.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rivera R, Yacobson I, Grimes D. The mechanism of action of hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;181(5):1263–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brynhildsen J. Combined hormonal contraceptives: prescribing patterns, compliance, and benefits versus risks. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2014;5(5):201–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Caserta D, Ralli E, Matteucci E, Bordi G, Mallozzi M, Moscarini M. Combined oral contraceptives: health benefits beyond contraception. Panminerva Med. 2014;56(3):233–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wasiak R, Filonenko A, Vanness DJ, Wittrup-Jensen KU, Stull DE, Siak S, Fraser I. Impact of estradiol-valerate/dienogest on work productivity and activities of daily living in European and Australian women with heavy menstrual bleeding. Int J Womens Health. 2012;4:271–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schindler AE. Non-contraceptive benefits of oral hormonal contraceptives. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2013;11(1):41–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cogliano V, Grosse Y, Baan R, Straif K, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F. WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer. Carcinogenicity of combined oestrogen-progestagen contraceptives and menopausal treatment. Lancet Oncol. 2005;6(8):552–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schürks M, Rist PM, Bigal ME, Buring JE, Lipton RB, Kurth T. Migraine and cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2009;339:b3914.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Spector JT, Kahn SR, Jones MR, Jayakumar M, Dalal D, Nazarian S. Migraine headache and ischemic stroke risk: an updated meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2010;123(7):612–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sacco S, Ornello R, Ripa P, Pistoia F, Carolei A. Migraine and hemorrhagic stroke: a meta-analysis. Stroke. 2013;44(11):3032–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sacco S, Pistoia F, Degan D, Carolei A. Conventional vascular risk factors: their role in the association between migraine and cardiovascular diseases. Cephalalgia. 2015;35(2):146–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Collaborative Group for the Study of Stroke in Young Women. Oral contraceptives and stroke in young women: associated risk factors. JAMA. 1975;231(7):718–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chang CL, Donaghy M, Poulter N. Migraine and stroke in young women: case–control study. The World Health Organization collaborative study of cardiovascular disease and steroid hormone contraception. BMJ. 1999;318(7175):13–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Haapaniemi H, Hillbom M, Juvela S. Lifestyle-associated risk factors for acute brain infarction among persons of working age. Stroke. 1997;28(1):26–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    MacClellan LR, Giles W, Cole J, Wozniak M, Stern B, Mitchell BD, Kittner SJ. Probable migraine with visual aura and risk of ischemic stroke: the Stroke Prevention in Young Women Study. Stroke. 2007;38(9):2438–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schwartz SM, Petitti DB, Siscovick DS, Longstreth WT Jr, Sidney S, Raghunathan TE, Quesenberry CP Jr, Kelaghan J. Stroke and use of low-dose oral contraceptives in young women: a pooled analysis of two US studies. Stroke. 1998;29(11):2277–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tzourio C, Tehindrazanarivelo A, Iglésias S, Alpérovitch A, Chedru F, d’Anglejan-Chatillon J, Bousser MG. Case–control study of migraine and risk of ischaemic stroke in young women. BMJ. 1995;310(6983):830–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Champaloux SW, Tepper NK, Monsour M, Curtis KM, Whiteman MK, Marchbanks PA, Jamieson DJ. Use of combined hormonal contraceptives among women with migraines and risk of ischemic stroke. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;216(5):489.e1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kudrow L. The relationship of headache frequency to hormone use in migraine. Headache. 1975;15(1):36–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sacco S, Merki-Feld GS, Ægidius KL, Bitzer J, Canonico M, Kurth T, Lampl C, Lidegaard Ø, Anne MacGregor E, MaassenVanDenBrink A, Mitsikostas DD, Nappi RE, Ntaios G, Sandset PM, Martelletti P. European Headache Federation (EHF) and the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health (ESC). Hormonal contraceptives and risk of ischemic stroke in women with migraine: a consensus statement from the European Headache Federation (EHF) and the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health (ESC). J Headache Pain. 2017;18(1):108.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Milhaud D, Bogousslavsky J, van Melle G, Liot P. Ischemic stroke and active migraine. Neurology. 2001;57(10):1805–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lidegaard O. Decline in cerebral thromboembolism among young women after introduction of low-dose oral contraceptives: an incidence study for the period 1980–1993. Contraception. 1995;52(2):85–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dalton K. Migraine and oral contraceptives. Headache. 1976;15(4):247–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Whitty CW, Hockaday JM, Whitty MM. The effect of oral contraceptives on migraine. Lancet. 1966;1(7442):856–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Larsson-Cohn U, Lundberg PO. Headache and treatment with oral contraceptives. Acta Neurol Scand. 1970;46(3):267–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ryan RE. A controlled study of the effect of oral contraceptives on migraine. Headache. 1978;17(6):250–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Couturier EG, Bomhof MA, Neven AK, van Duijn NP. Menstrual migraine in a representative Dutch population sample: prevalence, disability and treatment. Cephalalgia. 2003;23(4):302–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rasmussen BK. Migraine and tension-type headache in a general population: precipitating factors, female hormones, sleep pattern and relation to lifestyle. Pain. 1993;53(1):65–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Machado RB, Pereira AP, Coelho GP, Neri L, Martins L, Luminoso D. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of migraine in users of combined oral contraceptives. Contraception. 2010;81(3):202–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Massiou H, MacGregor EA. Evolution and treatment of migraine with oral contraceptives. Cephalalgia. 2000;20(3):170–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. Classification and diagnostic criteria for headache disorders, cranial neuralgias and facial pain. Cephalalgia. 1988;8(Suppl 7):1–96.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society. The International Classification of Headache Disorders: 2nd edition. Cephalalgia. 2004;24(Suppl 1):9–160.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition. Cephalalgia. 2018;38(1):1–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Colson NJ, Lea RA, Quinlan S, MacMillan J, Griffiths LR. Investigation of hormone receptor genes in migraine. Neurogenetics. 2005;6(1):17–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fotherby K. Twelve years of clinical experience with an oral contraceptive containing 30 micrograms ethinyloestradiol and 150 micrograms desogestrel. Contraception. 1995;51(1):3–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fotherby K. Clinical experience and pharmacological effects of an oral contraceptive containing 20 micrograms estrogen. Contraception. 1992;46(5):477–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Aegidius K, Zwart JA, Hagen K, Schei B, Stovner LJ. Oral contraceptives and increased headache prevalence: the Head-HUNT Study. Neurology. 2006;66(3):349–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gallo MF, Nanda K, Grimes DA, Lopez LM, Schulz KF. 20 μg versus >20 μg estrogen combined oral contraceptives for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(8):CD003989.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Loder EW, Buse DC, Golub JR. Headache as a side effect of combination estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193(3):636–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cupini LM, Matteis M, Troisi E, Calabresi P, Bernardi G, Silvestrini M. Sex-hormone-related events in migrainous females. A clinical comparative study between migraine with aura and migraine without aura. Cephalalgia. 1995;15(2):140–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mueller L. Predictability of exogenous hormone effect on subgroups of migraineurs. Headache. 2000;40(3):189–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Granella F, Sances G, Pucci E, Nappi RE, Ghiotto N, Nappi G. Migraine with aura and reproductive life events: a case control study. Cephalalgia. 2000;20(8):701–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    MacGregor EA. Contraception and headache. Headache. 2013;53(2):247–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Audet MC, Moreau M, Koltun WD, Waldbaum AS, Shangold G, Fisher AC, Creasy GW, ORTHO EVRA/EVRA 004 Study Group. Evaluation of contraceptive efficacy and cycle control of a transdermal contraceptive patch vs an oral contraceptive: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;285(18):2347–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Urdl W, Apter D, Alperstein A, Koll P, Schönian S, Bringer J, Fisher AC, Preik M, ORTHO EVRA/EVRA 003 Study Group. Contraceptive efficacy, compliance and beyond: factors related to satisfaction with once-weekly transdermal compared with oral contraception. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005;121(2):202–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ahrendt HJ, Nisand I, Bastianelli C, Gómez MA, Gemzell-Danielsson K, Urdl W, Karskov B, Oeyen L, Bitzer J, Page G, Milsom I. Efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of the combined contraceptive ring, NuvaRing, compared with an oral contraceptive containing 30 microg of ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg of drospirenone. Contraception. 2006;74(6):451–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Oddsson K, Leifels-Fischer B, de Melo NR, Wiel-Masson D, Benedetto C, Verhoeven CH, Dieben TO. Efficacy and safety of a contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing) compared with a combined oral contraceptive: a 1-year randomized trial. Contraception. 2005;71(3):176–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sabatini R, Cagiano R. Comparison profiles of cycle control, side effects and sexual satisfaction of three hormonal contraceptives. Contraception. 2006;74(3):220–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stewart FH, Brown BA, Raine TR, Weitz TA, Harper CC. Adolescent and young women’s experience with the vaginal ring and oral contraceptive pills. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2007;20(6):345–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lieba-Samal D, Wöber C, Frantal S, Brannath W, Schmidt K, Schrolnberger C, Wöber-Bingöl C, PAMINA study group. Headache, menstruation and combined oral contraceptives: a diary study in 184 women with migraine. Eur J Pain. 2011;15(8):852–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Merki-Feld GS, Epple G, Caveng N, Imthurn B, Seifert B, Sandor P, Gantenbein AR. Temporal relations in hormone-withdrawal migraines and impact on prevention- a diary-based pilot study in combined hormonal contraceptive users. J Headache Pain. 2017;18(1):91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Brandes JL. Migraine in women. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2012;18(4):835–52.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Allais G, Chiarle G, Sinigaglia S, Airola G, Schiapparelli P, Bergandi F, Benedetto C. Treating migraine with contraceptives. Neurol Sci. 2017;38(Suppl 1):85–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chavanu KJ, O’Donnell DC. Hormonal interventions for menstrual migraines. Pharmacotherapy. 2002;22(11):1442–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Calhoun A, Ford S. Elimination of menstrual-related migraine beneficially impacts chronification and medication overuse. Headache. 2008;48(8):1186–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    De Leo V, Scolaro V, Musacchio MC, Di Sabatino A, Morgante G, Cianci A. Combined oral contraceptives in women with menstrual migraine without aura. Fertil Steril. 2011;96(4):917–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Klipping C, Duijkers I, Trummer D, Marr J. Suppression of ovarian activity with a drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive in a 24/4 regimen. Contraception. 2008;78(1):16–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Coffee AL, Sulak PJ, Hill AJ, Hansen DJ, Kuehl TJ, Clark JW. Extended cycle combined oral contraceptives and prophylactic frovatriptan during the hormone-free interval in women with menstrual-related migraines. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014;23(4):310–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sulak P, Willis S, Kuehl T, Coffee A, Clark J. Headaches and oral contraceptives: impact of eliminating the standard 7-day placebo interval. Headache. 2007;47(1):27–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Calhoun A, Ford S, Pruitt A. The impact of extended-cycle vaginal ring contraception on migraine aura: a retrospective case series. Headache. 2012;52(8):1246–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Vetvik KG, MacGregor EA, Lundqvist C, Russell MB. Contraceptive-induced amenorrhoea leads to reduced migraine frequency in women with menstrual migraine without aura. J Headache Pain. 2014;15:30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Edelman A, Micks E, Gallo MF, Jensen JT, Grimes DA. Continuous or extended cycle vs. cyclic use of combined hormonal contraceptives for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(7):CD004695.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Calhoun AH, Batur P. Combined hormonal contraceptives and migraine: an update on the evidence. Cleve Clin J Med. 2017;84(8):631–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Calhoun AH. A novel specific prophylaxis for menstrual-associated migraine. South Med J. 2004;97(9):819–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Nappi RE, Terreno E, Sances G, Martini E, Tonani S, Santamaria V, Tassorelli C, Spinillo A. Effect of a contraceptive pill containing estradiol valerate and dienogest (E2V/DNG) in women with menstrually-related migraine (MRM). Contraception. 2013;88(3):369–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and BiotechnologyUniversity of L’AquilaL’AquilaItaly

Personalised recommendations