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Manganese Deposits of Turkey

  • Hüseyin ÖztürkEmail author
  • Cem Kasapçı
  • Fatih Özbaş
Chapter
Part of the Modern Approaches in Solid Earth Sciences book series (MASE, volume 16)

Abstract

Turkey comprises different types of manganese deposits which were identified by the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey (MTA) in 1965 (MTA. Manganese ore deposits of Turkey. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration. Pub. No: 120, 38 p. (In Turkish), 1972). After many research works conducted on the formation and genesis of marine pollymetalic oxides that occur in the modern oceanic sediments, a new genetic classification of the marine ferromanganese manganese deposits was made by several workers (Frakes LA, Bolton BR. Geology 12:83–86, 1984; Rona 1992). Based on newly acquired knowledge, the manganese deposits of Turkey were divided into four main types according to host rocks, geological-tectonic settings and formation processes by Öztürk (Geol Eng 43:24–33. (In Turkish with English abstract), 1993a; Öztürk H. Ore Geol Rev 12:187–203, 1997; Öztürk H, Hein JR. Econ Geol 92:733–744, 1997). These types are (1) Black shale – hosted deposits, (2) Radiolarian chert – hosted deposits, (3) Oligocene – hosted deposits, (4) Volcanic arc – hosted and/or vein -type deposits. Although radiolarian chert – hosted type Mn oxides mineralization is widely distributed, they generally are small occurrences associated with ophiolitic mélanges but some of them may be of economic value. Economically important Mn deposits are in the black shale rocks in southwestern Turkey and in the Oligocene sediments in the Thrace Basin. The Oligocene deposits are connected to the Black Sea region deposits, including Varna (Bulgaria), Nikopol (Ukraine) and Chiatura (Georgia). Exploration studies by drilling programs have been made by MTA for the Oligocene – hosted Binkılıç deposit of the Thrace Basin (Bora E. Binkılıç ve Sefaalan Bölgesinin jeolojisi ve manganez yatakları. [The geology and Mn deposits of the Binkılıc¸ and Sefaalan area]. M.Sc. Thesis, Istanbul University, 47 p. (In Turkish, unpublished), 1969) and black shale – hosted Ulukent Mn deposit in Tavas region (Doğan H, Turkmen H. Ulukent – Tavas çevresindeki manganez yataklarının jeoloji Raporu. [Geological report of the manganese deposits of the Ulukent-Tavas and surrounding area]. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration Report No: 345, 87 p. (In Turkish, Unpublished), 1983).

The representative manganese deposits or occurrences of each type are identified in this chapter on the basis of their age, host rocks, mineralogy, geochemistry and reserve – grade relationships. The distribution of the manganese mineral systems and the location of the important deposits in Turkey are shown in Fig. 6.1. The Mn ores of the main deposits were sampled and analyzed by ICP- MS at Acme laboratories in Canada, in 2015 exclusive for this chapter.

Notes

Acknowledgements

I thank to J. R. Hein, L. A. Frakes and G. Glasby for valuable discussions during the field study in Turkey, to N. Hanilci for sharing data of the Kepirli Mn mineralization, and research assistant Zeynep Cansu (İstanbul University) for contribution in drafting the figures. Thanks to Demeka mining company for their permission and kindly helps during the field study. Thanks go to the editorial group of this book for inviting me the preparation of the manganese chapter.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hüseyin Öztürk
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cem Kasapçı
    • 1
  • Fatih Özbaş
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geological Engineering, Avcilar Campusİstanbul University-CerrahpaşaİstanbulTurkey

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