Advertisement

A Review of the Geology and Geodynamic Evolution of Tectonic Terranes in Turkey

  • M. Cemal GöncüoğluEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Modern Approaches in Solid Earth Sciences book series (MASE, volume 16)

Abstract

The geodynamic evolution of Turkey is mainly controlled by drift and collision of a number oceanic and continental plates or terranes. This can be ascribed to four orogenic episodes, namely: the Cadomian, Variscan, Cimmerian and Alpine. During these episodes, terranes were formed in a wide range of tectonic settings, including active and passive continental margins, rifts, arcs and suture complexes between the Gondwana supercontinent in the South and the Eurasian supercontinent in the North. The arrangements and re-arrangements of these terranes in the past 500 Ma gave way to a very complex mosaic of geological units with a wide variety of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic units, as well as related mineral systems, as discussed in the chapters of this book.

In this chapter a brief review of these geological processes will be summarised within the framework of the geodynamic evolution to provide a background for the igneous activity, sedimentary rocks, metamorphic processes and formation of the mineral resources in Turkey.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This review is only a brief summary of facts and speculations in an area with very complex and highly debated geological problems. The author tried to present a balanced account on the different approaches and models.

For the patient editorial handling, I am thankful to F. PIRAJNO, T. ÜNLÜ, C DÖNMEZ and M. B. ŞAHİN. Özgür ÖZERKAN, Uğur BALCI and Deniz TRINGA are acknowledged for their help in revising the figures.

References

  1. AGI (2009) Glossary of geology. American Geological Institute, Washington, DC. online version. www.agiweb.org Google Scholar
  2. Akal C (2001) Occurrence, emplacement, and origin of high-potassium volcanics in the southern part of the Afyon region. PhD thesis, Dokuz Eylül University İzmir, p 239. UnpublishedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akbayram K, Okay AI, Satır M (2013) Early Cretaceous closure of the intra-Pontide Ocean in western Pontides (northwestern Turkey). J Geodyn 65:38–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akıman O, Erler A, Göncüoğlu MC, Güleç N, Geven A, Türeli K, Kadıoğlu Y (1993) Geochemical characteristics of granitoids along the western margin of the Central Anatolian crystalline complex and their tectonic implications. Geol J 28:371–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aksu AE, Calon TJ, Hiscott RN, Yasar D (2000) Anatomy of the North Anatolian fault zone in the Marmara Sea, Western Turkey: extensional basins above a continental transform. GSA Today 10(6):3–7Google Scholar
  6. Aksu AE, Calon TJ, Hall J, Yaşar D (2005) Origin and evolution of the Neogene Iskenderun basin, Northeastern Mediterranean Sea. Mar Geol 221(1):161–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alçiçek MC, Brogi A, Capezzuoli E, Liotta D, Meccheri M (2013) Superimposed basin formation during Neogene–quaternary extensional tectonics in SW-Anatolia (Turkey): insights from the kinematics of the Dinar fault zone. Tectonophysics 608:713–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aldanmaz E, Yalınız MK, Güçtekin A, Göncüoğlu MC (2008) Geochemical characteristics of mafic lavas from the Tethyan ophiolites in western Turkey: implications for heterogeneous source contribution during variable stages of ocean crust generation. Geol Mag 145:37–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Altıner D, Koçyiğit A, Farinacci A, Nicosia U, Conti MA (1991) Jurassic-early Cretaceous stratigraphy and paleogeographic evolution of the southern part of North-Western Anatolia (Turkey). Geol Romana 27:1–68Google Scholar
  10. Altunkaynak Ş, Sunal G, Aldanmaz E, Genç CŞ, Dilek Y, Furnes H, Foland KA, Jang J, Yıldız M (2012) Eocene granitic magmatism in NW Anatolia (Turkey) revisited: new implications from comparative zircon SHRIMP U–Pb and 40Ar–39Ar geochronology and isotope geochemistry on magma genesis and emplacement. Lithos 155:289–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arger J, Mitchell J, Westaway RW (2000) Neogene and quaternary volcanism of southeastern Turkey. In: Bozkurt E, Winchester JA, Piper JD (eds) Tectonics and magmatism in Turkey and the surrounding area. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 173:459–487Google Scholar
  12. Arslan M, Tüysüz N, Korkmaz S, Kurt H (1997) Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the eastern Pontide volcanic rocks, Northeast Turkey. Chem Erde 57:157–187Google Scholar
  13. Arslan M, Temizel I, Abdioğlu E, Kolaylı H, Yücel C, Boztuğ D, Şen C (2013) 40Ar–39Ar dating, whole-rock and Sr–Nd–Pb isotope geochemistry of post-collisional Eocene volcanic rocks in the southern part of the Eastern Pontides (NE Turkey): implications for magma evolution in extension-induced origin. Contrib Mineral Petrol 166(1):113–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Aydar E, Schmitt AK, Çubukçu HE, Akin L, Ersoy O, Sen E, Duncan RA, Atici G (2012) Correlation of ignimbrites in the central Anatolian volcanic province using zircon and plagioclase ages and zircon compositions. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 213:83–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Aygül M, Okay AI (2012) Blueschist-facies metamorphic rocks in the Central Pontides, Northern Turkey. In: EGU General Assembly Conference Abstract, vol 14. p 157Google Scholar
  16. Aygül M, Okay AI, Oberhänsli R, Schmidt A, Sudo M (2015) Late cretaceous infant intra-oceanic arc volcanism, the Central Pontides, Turkey: petrogenetic and tectonic implications. Asian J Earth Sci 111:312–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Aysal N, Ustaömer T, Öngen S, Keskin M, Köksal S, Peytcheva I, Fanning M (2012) Origin of the early-middle Devonian magmatism in the Sakarya Zone, NW Turkey: geochronology, geochemistry and isotope systematics. Asian J Earth Sci 45:201–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barka A, Akyüz HS, Cohen HA, Watchorn F (2000) Tectonic evolution of the Niksar and Tasova–Erbaa pull-apart basins, North Anatolian Fault Zone: their significance for the motion of the Anatolian block. Tectonophysics 322(3):243–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Beccaletto L, Jenny C (2004) Geology and correlation of the Ezine Zone: a Rhodope fragment in NW Turkey? Turk J Earth Sci 13(2):145–176Google Scholar
  20. Bedi Y, Vasilev E, Dabovski C, Ergen A, Okuyucu C, Dogan A, Tekin UK, Ivanova D, Boncheva I, Lakova I, Sachanski V, Kuscu I, Tuncay E, Demiray DG, Soycan H, Göncüoğlu MC (2013) New age data from the tectonostratigraphic units of the Istranca “Massif” in NW Turkey: a correlation with SE Bulgaria. Geol Carpath 64:255–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bektaş O, Şen C, Atıcı Y, Köprübaşı N (2000) Migration of the upper Cretaceous subduction-related volcanism towards the back-arc basin of the eastern Pontide magmatic arc (NE Turkey). Geol J 34:95–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bortolotti V, Chiari M, Göncüoğlu MC, Marcucci M, Principi G, Tekin UK, Saccani E, Tassinari R (2013) Age and geochemistry of basalt-chert associations in the ophiolites of the Izmir-Ankara mélange east of Ankara, Turkey: preliminary data. Ofioliti 38(2):157–173Google Scholar
  23. Bozkaya H, Yalcin H, Göncüoğlu MC (2012a) Diagenetic and very low-grade metamorphic characteristics of the Paleozoic series of the Istanbul terrane (NW Turkey). Swiss J Geosci 105:183–201.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00015-012-0108-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bozkaya O, Yalcin H, Göncüoğlu MC (2012b) Mineralogic evidences of a mid-Paleozoic tectonothermal event in the Zonguldak terrane, northwest Turkey: implications for the dynamics of some Gondwana-derived terranes during the closure of the Rheic Ocean. Can J Earth Sci 49:559–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bozkurt E (2001) Neotectonics of Turkey-a synthesis. Geodin Acta 14:3–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bozkurt E (2003) Origin of NE-trending basins in western Turkey. Geodin Acta 16(2):61–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bozkurt E, Oberhansli R (2001) Menderes massif (Western Turkey): structural, metamorphic and magmatic evolution – a synthesis. Int J Earth Sci 89:679–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Boztuğ D, Erçin Aİ, Kuruçelik MK, Göç D, Kömür İ, İskenderoğlu A (2006) Geochemical characteristics of the composite Kaçkar batholith generated in a Neo-Tethyan convergence system, Eastern Pontides, Turkey. Asian J Earth Sci 27(3):286–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Boztuğ D, Jonckheere R, Wagner GA, Ercin AI, Yegingil Z (2007a) Titanite and zircon fission-track dating resolves successive igneous episodes in the formation of the composite Kackar batholith in the Turkish eastern Pontides. Int J Earth Sci 96:875–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Boztuğ D, Tichomirowa M, Bombach K (2007b) 207Pb– 206Pb single-zircon evaporation ages of some granitoid rocks reveal continent-oceanic island arc collision during the Cretaceous geodynamic evolution of the central Anatolian crust, Turkey. Asian J Earth Sci 31:71–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bridgland DR, Demir T, Seyrek A, Pringle M, Westaway R, Beck AR, Rowbotham G, Yurtmen S (2007) Dating quaternary volcanism and incision by the River Tigris at Diyarbakır, southeast Turkey. J Quat Sci 22(4):387–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Candan O, Dora OO (1998) Granulite, eclogite and blueschist relics in the Menderes massif: an approach to Pan-African and tertiary metamorphic evolution. Geol Soc Turk Bull 41:1–35Google Scholar
  33. Candan O, Koralay OE, Akal C, Kaya O, Oberhänsli R, Dora OÖ, Konak N, Chen F (2011) Supra-Pan-African unconformity between core and cover series of the Menderes Massif/Turkey and its geological implications. Precambrian Res 184(1):1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Candan O, Koralay OE, Topuz G, Oberhänsli R, Fritz H, Collins AS, Chen F (2016) Late Neoproterozoic gabbro emplacement followed by early Cambrian eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Menderes Massif (W. Turkey): implications on the final assembly of Gondwana. Gondwana Res 34:158–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cater JML, Hanna SS, Ries AC, Turner P (1991) Tertiary evolution of the Sivas Basin, central Turkey. Tectonophysics 195(1):29–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Catlos EJ, Baker CB, Sorensen SS, Jacob L, Çemen I (2011) Linking microcracks and mineral zoning of detachment-exhumed granites to their tectonomagmatic history: evidence from the Salihli and Turgutlu plutons in western Turkey (Menderes Massif). J Struct Geol 33(5):951–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Çelik ÖF, Marzoli A, Marschik R, Chiaradia M, Neubauer F, Öz İ (2011) Early–middle Jurassic intra-oceanic subduction in the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Ocean, Northern Turkey. Tectonophysics 509(1):120–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Çemen I, Göncüoğlu MC, Dirik K (1999) Structural evolution of the Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake) basin: evidence for late Cretaceous extension and Cenozoic inversion in central Anatolia, Turkey. J Geol 107:693–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Çemen I, Tekeli O, Seyitoglu G, Isik V (2005) Are turtleback fault surfaces common structural elements of highly extended terrains? Earth-Sci Rev 73:139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chatalov GA (1988) Recent developments in the geology of the Strandzha Zone in Bulgaria. Bull Tech Univ İstanbul 41:433–465Google Scholar
  41. Çimen O, Göncüoğlu MC, Sayıt K (2016) Geochemistry of the meta-volcanic rocks from the Çangaldağ Complex in Central Pontides: implications for the middle Jurassic arc – back – arc system in the Neotethyan Intra-Pontide Ocean. Turk J Earth Sci 25(6):491–512Google Scholar
  42. Çiner A, Kosun E, Deynoux M (2002) Fluvial, evaporitic and shallow-marine facies architecture, depositional evolution and cyclicity in the Sivas Basin (lower to middle Miocene), Central Turkey. Asian J Earth Sci 21(2):147–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Clark M, Robertson AHF (2005) Uppermost Cretaceous–lower tertiary Ulukışla Basin, south-central Turkey: sedimentary evolution of part of a unified basin complex within an evolving Neotethyan suture zone. Sediment Geol 173(1):15–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Çolakoğlu AR, Günay K, Göncüoğlu MC, Oyman V, Erdogan K (2014) Geochemical evaluation of the late Maastrichtian subduction-related volcanism in the southern Neotethys in Van area, and a correlation across the Turkish-Iranian border. Ofioliti 39:51–65Google Scholar
  45. Collins PE, Rust DJ, Bayraktutan MS, Turner SD (2005) Fluvial stratigraphy and palaeoenvironments in the Pasinler Basin, eastern Turkey. Quat Int 140:121–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dirik K (2001) Neotectonic evolution of the northwestward arched segment of the Central Anatolian fault zone, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Geodin Acta 14(1–3):147–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dirik K, Göncüoğlu MC (1996) Neotectonic characteristics of the Central Anatolia. Int Geol Rev 38:807–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dirik K, Göncüoğlu MC, Kozlu H (1999) Stratigraphy and pre-Miocene tectonic evolution of the southwestern part of the Sivas Basin, Central Anatolia. Geol J 34:303–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dokuz A, Tanyolu E (2006) Geochemical constraints on the provenance, mineral sorting and subaerial weathering of lower Jurassic and upper Cretaceous clastic rocks of the Eastern Pontides, Yusufeli (Artvin), NE Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 15(2):181–209Google Scholar
  50. Dora OO, Kun N, Candan O (1991) Metamorphic history and geotectonic evolution of the Menderes massif. In: IESCA proceedings. pp 102–115Google Scholar
  51. Duman TY, Çan T, Emre Ö, Kadirioğlu FT, Başarır-Baştürk N, Kılıç T, Arslan S (2016) Seismotectonic database of Turkey. Earthq Eng 16 (8): 3277-3316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Duru M, Pehlivan Ş, Şentürk Y, Yavaş F, Kar H (2004) New results on the lithostratigraphy of the Kazdağ Massif in northwest Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 13(2):177–186Google Scholar
  53. Ellero A, Ottria G, Sayit K, Catanzariti R, Frassi C, Göncüoğlu MC, Marroni M, Pandolfi L (2015a) Geological and geochemical evidences for a Late Cretaceous continental arc in the Central Pontides, Northern Turkey. Ofioliti 40(2):73–90Google Scholar
  54. Ellero A, Ottria G, Marroni M, Pandolfi L, Göncüoğlu MC (2015b) Analysis of the North Anatolian Shear Zone in Central Pontides (Northern Turkey): insight for geometries and kinematics of deformation structures in a transpressional zone. J Struct Geol 72:124–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Elmas A, Yilmaz Y (2003) Development of an oblique subduction zone-tectonic evolution of the Tethys suture zone in southeast Turkey. Int Geol Rev 45(9):827–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Emre Ö, Duman TY, Özalp S, Elmaci H, Olgun Ş, Şaroğlu F (2013) 1: 1.250.000 scaled active fault map of Turkey with explanations. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration Special Publication Nr: 30, Ankara, p 89Google Scholar
  57. Erdogan B, Güngör T (2004) The problem of the core-cover boundary of the Menderes Massif and an emplacement mechanism for regionally extensive gneissic granites, Western Anatolia (Turkey). Turk J Earth Sci 13(1):15–36Google Scholar
  58. Erler A (1984) Tectonic setting of the massive sulfide deposits of the Southeast Anatolian Thrust Belt. In: Tekeli O, Göncüoğlu MC (eds) International symposium on the geology of the Taurus Belt. MTA Publications, Ankara, pp 237–244Google Scholar
  59. Eyüboglu Y, Chung SL, Santosh M, Dudas FO, Akaryalı E (2011) Transition from shoshonitic to adakitic magmatism in the Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey: implications for slab window melting. Gondwana Res 19(2):413–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Floyd PA, Yalınız MK, Göncüoğlu MC (1998) Geochemistry and petrogenesis of intrusive and extrusive ophiolitic plagiogranites, Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex, Turkey. Lithos 42(3/4):225–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Floyd PA, Özgül L, Göncüoğlu MC (2003) Metabasite blocks from the Koçyaka HP-LT metamorphic rocks, Konya, central Anatolia: geochemical evidence for an arc-back-arc pair? Turk J Earth Sci 12:157–174Google Scholar
  62. Frassi C, Göncüoğlu CM, Marroni M, Pandolfi L, Ruffini L, Ellero A, Ottria G, Sayit K (2016) The Intra-Pontide suture zone in the Tosya-Kastamonu area, Northern Turkey. J Maps 12 (sup1): 211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Genç ŞC, Tüysüz O (2010) Tectonic setting of the Jurassic bimodal magmatism in the Sakarya Zone (Central and Western Pontides), Northern Turkey: a geochemical and isotopic approach. Lithos 118(1):95–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Geneli F, Göncüoğlu MC, Lassiter J, Toksoy-Köksal F (2010) Eocene post-collisional volcanism in the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex, Turkey: petrology and geodynamic significance. Geol Balcan 39(1–2):127–128Google Scholar
  65. Glodny J, Hetzel R (2007) Precise U–Pb ages of syn-extensional Miocene intrusions in the central Menderes Massif, western Turkey. Geol Mag 144(02):235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gökten E, Floyd PA (2007) Stratigraphy and geochemistry of pillow basalts within the ophiolitic mélange of the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan suture zone: implications for the geotectonic character of the northern branch of Neotethys. Int J Earth Sci 96:725–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Göncüoğlu MC (1977) Geologie des westlichen Niğde Massifs. PhD thesis, Bonn F. W. Universiy, Bonn, p 176. UnpublishedGoogle Scholar
  68. Göncüoğlu MC (2010) Introduction to the geology of Turkey: geodynamic evolution of the pre-Alpine and Alpine terranes. Gen Direct Mineral Res Explor Monogr Ser 5:1–66Google Scholar
  69. Göncüoğlu MC (2011) Geology of the Kütahya-Bolkardağ Belt. Bull Min Res Exp 142:223–277Google Scholar
  70. Göncüoğlu MC (2014) Comments on a single versus multi-armed Southern Neotethys in SE Turkey and Iran. IGCP589 Development of the Asian Tethyan realm: Geneses, process and outcome. Abstracts and proceedings, pp 89–95Google Scholar
  71. Göncüoğlu MC, Kozur H (1998) Remarks on the pre-Variscan development in Turkey. In: Linnemann U, Heuse T, Fatka O, Kraft P, Brocke R, Erdtmann BT (eds) Pre-variscan terrane analyses of “Gondwanean Europa.” Proceedings, Schriften des Staatl Mus Min Geol Dresden 9:137–138Google Scholar
  72. Göncüoğlu MC, Türeli TK (1994) Alpine collisional-type granitoids from the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex. J Kocaeli Univ 1:39–46Google Scholar
  73. Göncüoğlu MC, Turhan N (1984) Geology of the Bitlis Metamorphic Belt. In: Tekeli O, Göncüoğlu MC (eds) International symposium on the geology of the Taurus Belt. MTA Publications, Ankara, pp 237–244Google Scholar
  74. Göncüoğlu MC, Kozlu H, Dirik K (1997) Pre-Alpine and Alpine terranes in Turkey: explanatory notes to the terrane map of Turkey. Ann Géol Pays Hellén 37:515–536Google Scholar
  75. Göncüoğlu MC, Turhan N, Şentürk K, Özcan A, Uysal Ş, Yalınız K (2000) A geotraverse across NW Turkey: tectonic units of the Central Sakarya region and their tectonic evolution. In: Bozkurt E, Winchester JA, Piper JA (eds) Tectonics and magmatism in Turkey and the surrounding area. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 173:139–161Google Scholar
  76. Göncüoğlu MC, Göncüoğlu Y, Kozlu H, Kozur H (2004) Geological evolution of the Taurides during the infra-Cambrian to Carboniferous period: a Gondwanan perspective based on new biostratigraphic findings. Geol Carpath 55:433–447Google Scholar
  77. Göncüoğlu MC, Yalınız MK, Tekin UK (2006) Geochemistry, tectono-magmatic discrimination and radiolarian ages of basic extrusives within the Izmir-Ankara Suture Belt (NW Turkey): time constraints for the Neotethyan evolution. Ofioliti 31:25–38Google Scholar
  78. Göncüoğlu MC, Gürsu S, Tekin UK, Köksal S (2008) New data on the evolution of the Neotethyan oceanic branches in Turkey: late Jurassic ridge spreading in the Intra-Pontide branch. Ofioliti 33:153–164Google Scholar
  79. Göncüoğlu MC, Sayıt K, Tekin UK (2010) Oceanization of the northern Neotethys: geochemical evidence from ophiolitic mélange basalts within the Izmir-Ankara suture belt, NW Turkey. Lithos 116:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Göncüoğlu MC, Maroni M, Sayit K, Tekin UK, Ottria G, Pandolfi L, Ellero A (2012) The Aylı Dag ophiolite sequence (central-northern Turkey): a fragment of middle Jurassic oceanic lithosphere within the Intra-Pontide suture zone. Ofioliti 37:77–91Google Scholar
  81. Göncüoğlu MC, Marroni M, Pandolfi L, Ellero A, Ottria G, Catanzariti R, Tekin UK, Sayit K (2014) The Arkot Dağ Mélange in Araç area, central Turkey: evidence of its origin within the geodynamic evolution of the Intra-Pontide suture zone. Asian J Earth Sci 85:117–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Göncüoğlu MC, Tekin UK, Sayit K, Bedi Y, Uzunçimen S (2015) Opening, evolution and closure of the Neotethyan oceanic branches in Anatolia as inferred by radiolarian research. Radiolaria 35:88–90Google Scholar
  83. Görür N (1988) Timing of opening of the Black Sea basin. Tectonophysics 47:247–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Görür N, Okay AI (1996) A fore-arc origin for the Thrace Basin, NW Turkey. Geol Rundsch 85(4):662–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Görür N, Tüysüz O (2001) Cretaceous to Miocene palaeogeographic evolution of Turkey: implications for hydrocarbon potential. J Pet Geol 24:119–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Görür N, Okay AI, Şengör AMC, Tüysüz O, Sakınç M, Yiğitbaş E, Yaltırak C (1998a) Triassic to Miocene palaeogeographic atlas of Turkey. In: General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration Publications, Ankara, p 96Google Scholar
  87. Görür N, Tüysüz O, Şengör AMC (1998b) Tectonic evolution of the central Anatolian basins. Int Geol Rev 40(9):831–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Görür N, Çağatay N, Sakinç M, Akkök R, Tchapalyga A, Natalin B (2000) Neogene Paratethyan succession in Turkey and its implications for the palaeogeography of the Eastern Paratethys. In: Bozkurt E, Winchester JA, Piper JD (eds) Tectonics and magmatism in Turkey and the surrounding area. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 173(1):251–269Google Scholar
  89. Gülmez F, Genç ŞC, Keskin M, Tüysüz O (2012) A post-collision slab-breakoff model for the orgin of the middle Eocene magmatic rocks of the Armutlu–Almacık belt, NW Turkey and its regional implications. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 372:107–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Gürer ÖF, Aldanmaz E (2002) Origin of the upper Cretaceous–tertiary sedimentary basins within the Tauride–Anatolide platform in Turkey. Geol Mag 139(02):191–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Gürsu S (2016) A new petrogenetic model for meta-granitic rocks in the central and Southern Menderes Massif-W Turkey: implications for Cadomian crustal evolution within the Pan-African mega-cycle. Precambrian Res 275:450–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gürsu S, Göncüoğlu MC (2006) Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of Cadomian felsic igneous rocks, Sandıklı area of the western Taurides, Turkey. Int J Earth Sci 95:741–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gürsu S, Möller A, Göncüoğlu MC, Köksal S, Demircan H, Toksoy Köksal F, Kozlu H, Sunal G (2015) Neoproterozoic continental arc volcanism at the northern edge of the Arabian Plate, SE Turkey. Precambrian Res 258:208–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hagdorn H, Göncüoğlu MC (2007) Early-middle Triassic echinoderm remains from the Istranca Massif, Turkey. N Jb Geol Paleont Abh 246:235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Helvacı C, Ersoy EY, Sözbilir H, Erkul F, Sümer O, Uzel B (2009) Geochernistry and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of Miocene volcanic rocks from the Karaburun Peninsula: implications for amphibole-bearing lithospheric mantle source, Western Anatolia. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 185:181–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Herece E, Akay E (2003) Atlas of North Anatolian fault (NAF). General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration Special Publ No 2, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  97. Howell DG (1995) Principles of terrane analysis: new applications for global tectonics, vol 8. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  98. İlbeyli N, Demirbilek M, Kibici Y (2015) Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the late Paleozoic magmatism in the Sakarya Zone (NW Turkey). Neues Jb Mineral Abh 192(2):177–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Karacık Z, Tüysüz O (2010) Petrogenesis of the late Cretaceous Demirköy igneous complex in the NW Turkey: implications for magma genesis in the Strandja Zone. Lithos 114(3):369–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Karslı O, Dokuz A, Uysal İ, Aydin F, Kandemir R, Wijbrans J (2010) Generation of the early Cenozoic adakitic volcanism by partial melting of mafic lower crust, Eastern Turkey: implications for crustal thickening to delamination. Lithos 114:109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kaygusuz A, Siebel W, Şen C, Satir M (2008) Petrochemistry and petrology of I-type granitoids in an arc setting: the composite Torul pluton, Eastern Pontides, NE Turkey. Int J Earth Sci 97(4):739–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kaymakci N, Özçelik Y, White SH, Van Dijk PM (2009) Tectono-stratigraphy of the Çankırı Basin: late Cretaceous to early Miocene evolution of the Neotethyan suture zone in Turkey. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 311:67–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Keskin M (2003) Magma generation by slab steepening and breakoff beneath a subduction-accretion complex: an alternative model for collision-related volcanism in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Geophys Res Lett 30:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Keskin M, Pearce JA, Kempton PD, Greenwood P (2006) Magma-crust interactions and magma plumbing in a postcollisional setting: geochemical evidence from the Erzurum-Kars volcanic plateau, eastern Turkey. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 409:475–505Google Scholar
  105. Keskin M, Genç ŞC, Tüysüz O (2008) Petrology and geochemistry of post-collisional Middle Eocene volcanic units in North-Central Turkey: evidence for magma generation by slab breakoff following the closure of the Northern Neotethys Ocean. Lithos 104(1):267–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ketin I (1966) Tectonic units of Anatolia. Bull Min Res Exp 66:23–34Google Scholar
  107. Kocyigit A (1991) First remark on the geology of Karakaya basin. Karakaya Orogen and pre-Jurassic nappes in eastern Pontides, Turkey. Geol Romana 27:2–11Google Scholar
  108. Koçyiğit A (2005) The Denizli graben-horst system and the eastern limit of western Anatolian continental extension: basin fill, structure, deformational mode, throw amount and episodic evolutionary history, SW Turkey. Geodin Acta 18(3–4):167–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Koçyiğit A, Erol O (2001) A tectonic escape structure: Erciyes pull-apart basin, Kayseri, central Anatolia, Turkey. Geodin Acta 14(1–3):133–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Koçyiğit A, Yılmaz A, Adamia S, Kuloshvili S (2001) Neotectonics of East Anatolian Plateau (Turkey) and Lesser Caucasus: implication for transition from thrusting to strike-slip faulting. Geodin Acta 14(1–3):177–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Köksal S, Romer RL, Göncüoğlu MC, Toksoy-Köksal F (2004) Timing of the transition from the post-collisional to A-type magmatism: titanite U/Pb ages from the alpine Central Anatolian Granitoids, Turkey. Int J Earth Sci 93:974–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Köksal S, Toksoy-Köksal F, Göncüoğlu MC, Möller A, Gerdes A, Frei D (2013) Crustal source of the Late Cretaceous Satansarı monzonite stock (central Anatolia–Turkey) and its significance for the Alpine geodynamic evolution. J Geodyn 65:82–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Koralay OE, Satir M, Dora OÖ (2001) Geochemical and geochronological evidence for early Triassic calc-alkaline magmatism in the Menderes Massif, western Turkey. Int J Earth Sci 89(4):822–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kozur H, Aydın M, Demir O, Yakar H, Göncüoğlu MC, Kuru F (2000) New stratigraphic results from the Paleozoic and early Mesozoic of the middle Pontides (Northern Turkey). Geol Croat 53:209–268Google Scholar
  115. Kuscu-Gençalioğlu G, Geneli F (2010) Review of post-collisional volcanism in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (Turkey), with special reference to the Tepekoy Volcanic Complex. Int J Earth Sci 99(3):593–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lustrino M, Keskin M, Mattioli M, Lebedev VA, Chugaev A, Sharkov E, Kavak O (2010) Early activity of the largest Cenozoic shield volcano in the circum-Mediterranean area: Mt. Karacadağ, SE Turkey. Eur J Mineral 22(3):343–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Manav H, Gültekin AH, Uz B (2004) Geochemical evidence for the tectonic setting of the Harmancik ophiolites, NW Turkey. Asian J Earth Sci 24(1):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Marroni M, Frassi C, Göncüoğlu MC, Di Vincenzo G, Pandolfi L, Rebay G, Ellero A, Ottria G (2014) Late Jurassic amphibolite-facies metamorphism in the Intra-Pontide Suture Zone (Turkey): an eastward extension of the Vardar Ocean from the Balkans into Anatolia? J Geol Soc Lond 171(5):605–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Moix P, Beccaletto L, Kozur HW, Hochard C, Rosselet F, Stampfli GM (2008) A new classification of the Turkish terranes and sutures and its implication for the paleotectonic history of the region. Tectonophysics 451:7–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Oberhänsli R, Koralay E, Candan O, Pourteau A, Bousquet R (2013) Late Cretaceous eclogitic high-pressure relics in the Bitlis Massif. Geodin Acta 26(3–4):175–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Okay AI (1985) Metamorphic belts in northwest Turkey. In: Ketin symposium proceedings. Geol Society Turkey Publications, pp 83–92Google Scholar
  122. Okay AI, Göncüoğlu MC (2004) The Karakaya complex: a review of data and concepts. Turk J Earth Sci 13:75–95Google Scholar
  123. Okay AI, Şahintürk O (1998) Geology of the Eastern Pontides. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Mem 68:291–313Google Scholar
  124. Okay AI, Tüysüz O (1999) Tethyan sutures of northern Turkey. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 156:475–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Okay AI, Arman MB, Göncüoğlu MC (1985) Petrology and phase relations of the kyanite-eclogites from eastern Turkey. Contrib Mineral Petrol 91:196–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Okay AI, Kaşlılar-Özcan A, Imren C, Boztepe-Güney A, Demirbağ E, Kuşçu İ (2000) Active faults and evolving strike-slip basins in the Marmara Sea, northwest Turkey: a multichannel seismic reflection study. Tectonophysics 321(2):189–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Okay AI, Satır M, Tüysüz O, Akyüz S, Chen F (2001) The tectonics of the Strandja Massif: late Variscan and mid Mesozoic deformation and metamorphism in the northern Aegean. Int J Earth Sci 90:217–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Okay AI, Monod O, Monie E (2002) Triassic blueschists and eclogites from NW Turkey: vestiges of the Palaeotethyan subduction. Lithos 64:155–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Okay AI, Satir M, Siebel W (2006a) Pre-Alpide Palaeozoic and Mesozoic orogenic events in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Geol Soc Lond Mem 32(1):389–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Okay AI, Tüysüz O, Satır M, Özkan-Altiner S, Altiner D, Sherlock S, Eren RH (2006b) Cretaceous and Triassic subduction-accretion, high-pressure–low-temperature metamorphism, and continental growth in the Central Pontides, Turkey. Geol Soc Am Bull 118(9–10):1247–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Okay AI, Özcan E, Cavazza W, Okay N, Less G (2010) Basement types, Lower Eocene series, Upper Eocene olistostromes and the initiation of the southern Thrace Basin, NW Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 19(1):1–25Google Scholar
  132. Okay AI, Sunal G, Sherlock S, Altıner D, Tüysüz O, Kylander-Clark ARC, Aygül M (2013) Early Cretaceous sedimentation and orogeny on the active margin of Eurasia: Southern Central Pontides, Turkey. Tectonics 32:1247–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Okay AI, Sunal G, Tüysüz O, Sherlock S, Keskin M, Kylander-Clark ARC (2014) Low-pressure–high-temperature metamorphism during extension in a Jurassic magmatic arc, Central Pontides, Turkey. J Metamorph Geol 32(1):49–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Okay AI, Altiner D, Kiliç AM (2015) Triassic limestone, turbidites and serpentinite–the Cimmeride orogeny in the Central Pontides. Geol Mag 152(03):460–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Okuyucu C, Dimitrova TK, Göncüoğlu MC, Gedik I (2017) Late Permian (Tatarian) fluvio-lacustrine successions in NW Anatolia (Zonguldak Terrane, Turkey): palaeogeographic implications. Geol Mag 154(5):1073–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Önen AP, Hall R (1993) Ophiolites and related metamorphic rocks from the Kütahya region, north-west Turkey. Geol J 28:399–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Özcan A, Göncüoğlu MC, Turhan N, Uysal Ş, Şentürk K (1989) Late Paleozoic evolution of the Kütahya-Bolkardağ Belt. METU J Pure Appl Sci 21:211–220Google Scholar
  138. Özer S, Sözbilir H, Özkar İ, Toker V, Sari B (2001) Stratigraphy of upper Cretaceous–Palaeogene sequences in the southern and eastern Menderes Massif (western Turkey). Int J Earth Sci 89(4):852–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Özgen-Erdem N, İnan N, Akyazı M, Tunoğlu C (2005) Benthonic foraminiferal assemblages and microfacies analysis of Paleocene–Eocene carbonate rocks in the Kastamonu region, Northern Turkey. Asian J Earth Sci 25(3):403–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Özgül N (1976) Some geological aspects of the Taurus orogenic belt (Turkey). Geol Soc Turkey Bull 19:75–87 in Turkish with English abstractGoogle Scholar
  141. Özgül N (1984) Stratigraphy and tectonic evolution of the Central Taurides. In: Tekeli O and Göncüoğlu MC (eds) Int. Symposium on the Geology of the Taurus Belt, pp 77–90Google Scholar
  142. Özgül N (2012) Stratigraphy and some structural features of the İstanbul Paleozoic. Turk J Earth Sci 21:817–866Google Scholar
  143. Özsayın E, Ciner TA, Rojay FB, Dirik RK, Melnick D, Fernandez-Blanco D (2013) Plio-quaternary extensional tectonics of the Central Anatolian Plateau: a case study from the Tuz Gölü Basin, Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 22(5):691–714Google Scholar
  144. Öztürk YY, Helvacı C, Satır M (2012) Geochemical and isotopic constraints on petrogenesis of the Beypazari Granitoid, NW Ankara, Western Central Anatolia, Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 21(1):53–77Google Scholar
  145. Papanikolaou D (2009) Timing of tectonic emplacement of the ophiolites and terrane paleogeography in the Hellenides. Lithos 108(1):262–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Parlak O, Höck V, Kozlu H, Delaloye M (2004) Oceanic crust generation in an island arc tectonic setting, SE Anatolian orogenic belt (Turkey). Mineral Mag 141:583–603Google Scholar
  147. Parlak O, Çolakoğlu A, Dönmez C, Sayak H, Yildirim N, Türkel A, Odabaşı İ (2013a) Geochemistry and tectonic significance of ophiolites along the İzmir–Ankara–Erzincan Suture Zone in northeastern Anatolia. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 372:75–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Parlak O, Karaoğlan F, Rızaoğlu T, Klötzli U, Koller F, Billor Z (2013b) U–Pb and 40Ar–39Ar geochronology of the ophiolites and granitoids from the Tauride belt: implications for the evolution of the inner Tauride suture. J Geodyn 65:22–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Perincek D (1979) The geology of Hazro-Korudag-Cüngüs-Maden-Ergani-Hazar-Elazığ-Malatya area. Guide Book Geological Society, Turkey, p 33Google Scholar
  150. Perinçek D, Duran O, Bozdoğan N, Çoruh T (1991) Stratigraphy and paleogeographical evolution of the autochthonous sedimentary rocks in the SE Anatolia. In: Turgut S (ed) Proceedings of Ozan Sungurlu symposium. Ankara, pp 274–305Google Scholar
  151. Platevoet B, Elitok Ö, Guillou H, Bardintzeff JM, Yagmurlu F, Nomade S, Poisson A, Deniel C, Özgür N (2014) Petrology of quaternary volcanic rocks and related plutonic xenoliths from Gölcük volcano, Isparta Angle, Turkey: origin and evolution of the high-K alkaline series. Asian J Earth Sci 92:53–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Rimmelé G, Oberhänsli R, Goffé B, Jolivet L, Candan O, Çetinkaplan M (2003) First evidence of high-pressure metamorphism in the “Cover Series” of the southern Menderes Massif. Tectonic and metamorphic implications for the evolution of SW Turkey. Lithos 71(1):19–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Rızaoğlu T, Parlak O, Höck V, Koller F, Hames WE, Billor Z (2009) Andean-type active margin formation in the eastern Taurides: geochemical and geochronogical evidence from the Baskil granitoid (Elazığ, SE Turkey). Tectonophysics 473(1):188–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Robertson AHF (2002) Overview of the genesis and emplacement of Mesozoic ophiolites in the Eastern Mediterranean Tethyan region. Lithos 65:1–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Robertson AHF, Ustaömer T (2005) Tectonic evolution of the Intra-Pontide suture zone in the Armutlu Peninsula, NW Turkey. Tectonophysics 381:175–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Robertson AHF, Ustaömer T, Pickett EA, Collins AS, Andrew T, Dixon JE (2004) Testing models of late Palaeozoic–early Mesozoic orogeny in Western Turkey: support for an evolving open-Tethys model. J Geol Soc Lond 161:501–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Robertson AHF, Parlak O, Rizaoğlu T, Ünlügenç Ü, İnan N, Tasli K, Ustaömer T (2007) Tectonic evolution of the South Tethyan ocean: evidence from the Eastern Taurus Mountains (Elaziğ region, SE Turkey). Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 272:231–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Robertson AH, Parlak O, Ustaömer T (2009) Melange genesis and ophiolite emplacement related to subduction of the northern margin of the Tauride–Anatolide continent, central and western Turkey. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 311(1):9–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Robinson AG, Banks CJ, Rutherford MM, Hirst JPP (1995) Stratigraphic and structural development of the Eastern Pontides, Turkey. J Geol Soc Lond 152:861–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rojay B, Heimann A, Toprak V (2001) Neotectonic and volcanic characteristics of the Karasu fault zone (Anatolia, Turkey): the transition zone between the Dead Sea transform and the East Anatolian fault zone. Geodin Acta 14(1–3):197–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Sarıfakıoğlu E, Özen H, Çolakoğlu A, Sayak H (2010) Petrology, mineral chemistry, and tectonomagmatic evolution of late Cretaceous suprasubduction-zone ophiolites in the İzmir–Ankara–Erzincan suture zone, Turkey. Int Geol Rev 52(2–3):187–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Şaroğlu F, Emre Ö, Boray A (1992) Türkiye Diri Fay Haritası, Active Faults maps of Turkey. MTA Publ, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  163. Savaşçın MY, Francalanci L, Innocenti T, Manetti P, Birsoy R, Dağ N (1995) Miocene–Pliocene potassic–ultrapotassic volcanism of the Afyon–Isparta region (centralwestern Anatolia, Turkey): petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. International Earth Sciences Colloquium on the Aegean Region (IESCA-1995) Proceedings, vol. 2:487–502Google Scholar
  164. Sayit K, Göncüoğlu MC (2009) Geochemistry of mafic rocks of the Karakaya complex, Turkey: evidence for plume-involvement in the Palaeotethyan extensional regime during the middle and late Triassic. Int J Earth Sci 98:157–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Sayit K, Göncüoğlu MC (2013) Geodynamic evolution of the Karakaya Melange Complex, Turkey: a review of geological and petrological constraints. J Geodyn 65:56–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Sayit K, Göncüoğlu MC, Tekin UK (2015) Middle Carnian arc-type basalts from the Lycian Nappes, Southwestern Anatolia: early late Triassic subduction in the Northern Branch of Neotethys. J Geol 123(6):561–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Sayit K, Marroni M, Göncüoğlu MC, Pandolfi L, Ellero A, Ottria G, Frassi C (2016) Geological setting and geochemical signatures of the mafic rocks from the Intra-Pontide Suture Zone: implications for the geodynamic reconstruction of the Mesozoic Neotethys. Int J Earth Sci 105(1):39–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Seghedi I, Ersoy YE, Helvacı C (2013) Miocene–quaternary volcanism and geodynamic evolution in the Pannonian Basin and the Menderes Massif: a comparative study. Lithos 180:25–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Şen C, Arslan M, Van A (1998) Geochemical and petrological characteristics of eastern Pontide Eocene (?) alkaline volcanic province, NE Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 7:231–239Google Scholar
  170. Sen PA, Temel A, Gourgaud A (2004) Petrogenetic modelling of quaternary post-collisional volcanism: a case study of central and eastern Anatolia. Geol Mag 141(01):81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sengör AMC (1984) The Cimmeride orogenic system and the tectonics of Eurasia. GSA Spec Pap 195:1–82Google Scholar
  172. Şengör AMC, Yılmaz Y (1981) Tethyan evolution of Turkey: a plate tectonic approach. Tectonophysics 75:181–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Şengör AMC, Yılmaz Y, Sungurlu O (1984) Tectonics of the Mediterranean Cimmerides: nature and evolution of the western termination of Paleo-Tethys. In: Dixon JE, Robertson AHF (eds). The geological evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 17:77–112Google Scholar
  174. Sengör AMC, Görür N, Şaroglu F (1985) Strike-slip deformation, basin formation and sedimentation: strike-slip faulting and related basin formation in zones of tectonic escape: Turkey as a case study. Soc Econ Paleontol Mineral Spec Publ 37:227–264Google Scholar
  175. Şengör AMC, Özeren S, Genç T, Zor E (2003) East Anatolian high plateau as a mantle-supported, north-south shortened domal structure. Geophys Res Lett 30:24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Şengün F, Koralay OE (2016) Early Variscan magmatism along the southern margin of Laurasia: geochemical and geochronological evidence from the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Int J Earth Sci 1–16Google Scholar
  177. Seyitoǧlu G, Işık V, Cemen I (2004) Complete tertiary exhumation history of the Menderes massif, western Turkey: an alternative working hypothesis. Terra Nova 16(6):358–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Siyako M, Huvaz O (2007) Eocene stratigraphic evolution of the Thrace Basin, Turkey. Sediment Geol 198(1):75–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Sözbilir H, Sarι B, Uzel B, Sümer Ö, Akkiraz S (2011) Tectonic implications of transtensional supradetachment basin development in an extension-parallel transfer zone: the Kocaçay Basin, western Anatolia, Turkey. Basin Res 23(4):423–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Stampfli GM (2000) Tethyan oceans. In: Bozkurt E, Winchester JA, Piper JD (eds) Tectonics and magmatism in Turkey and the surrounding area. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 173:1–23Google Scholar
  181. Sunal G (2012) Devonian magmatism in the western Sakarya Zone, Karacabey region, NW Turkey. Geodin Acta 25(3–4):183–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Tekeli O (1981) Subduction complex of pre-Jurassic age, northern Anatolia, Turkey. Geology 9:68–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Tekeli O, Erendil M (1984) Geology and petrology of the Kızıldağ Ophiolite (Hatay). In: Tekeli O, Göncüoğlu MC (eds) Int Symposium on the Geology of the Taurus Belt. MTA Publ, Ankara, pp 127–147Google Scholar
  184. Tekeli O, Aksay A, Urgün BM, Isik A (1984) Geology of the Aladag mountains. In: Tekeli O, Göncüoğlu MC (eds) Int Symposium on the Geology of the Taurus Belt. MTA Publ, Ankara, pp 143–158Google Scholar
  185. Tekin UK, Göncüoğlu MC (2007) Discovery of the oldest (upper Ladinian to middle Carnian) radiolarian assemblages from the Bornova Flysch Zone in western Turkey: implications for the evolution of the Neotethyan Izmir-Ankara Ocean. Ofioliti 32:131–150Google Scholar
  186. Tekin UK, Göncüoğlu MC, Turhan N (2002) First evidence of late Carnian radiolarian fauna from the Izmir-Ankara Suture Complex, Central Sakarya, Turkey: implications for the opening age of the Izmir-Ankara branch of Neotethys. Geobios 35:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Tekin UK, Göncüoğlu MC, Uzuncimen S (2012a) Radiolarian assemblages of middle and late Jurassic to early late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) ages from an olistolith record pelagic deposition within the Bornova Flysch Zone in western Turkey. Bull Soc Géol Fr 183(4):307–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Tekin UK, Göncüoğlu MC, Pandolfi L, Marroni M (2012b) Middle-late Triassic radiolarian cherts from the Arkotdağ mélange in northern Turkey: implications for the life span of the northern Neotethyan branch. Geodin Acta 25(3–4):305–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Tekin UK, Ural M, Göncüoğlu MC, Arslan M, Kürüm S (2015) Upper Cretaceous radiolarian ages from an arc–backarc within the Yuksekova complex in the southern Neotethys melange, SE Turkey. CR Palevol 14(2):73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Temel A, Gündoğdu MN, Gourgaud A, Le Pennec JL (1998) Ignimbrites of Cappadocia (central Anatolia, Turkey): petrology and geochemistry. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 85(1):447–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Temizel İ, Arslan M (2008) Petrology and geochemistry of tertiary volcanic rocks from the Ikizce (Ordu) area, NE Turkey: implications for the evolution of the eastern Pontide paleo-magmatic arc. Asian J Earth Sci 31(4):439–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Tokel S (1977) Eocene calc-alkaline andesites and geotectonism in Black Sea Region. Geol Soc Turk Bull 20:49–54Google Scholar
  193. Toprak V (1998) Vent distribution and its relation to regional tectonics, Cappadocian Volcanics, Turkey. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 85(1):55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Toprak V, Göncüoğlu MC (1993) Tectonic control on the development of Neogene-Quaternary Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Turkey. Geol J 28:357–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Topuz G, Altherr R, Schwarz WH, Dokuz A, Meyer HP (2007) Variscan amphibolite-facies rocks from the Kurtoğlu metamorphic complex (Gümüşhane area, Eastern Pontides, Turkey). Int J Earth Sci 96(5):861–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Topuz G, Altherr R, Siebel W, Schwarz WH, Zack T, Hasözbek A, Şen C (2010) Carboniferous high-potassium I-type granitoid magmatism in the Eastern Pontides: the Gümüşhane pluton (NE Turkey). Lithos 116(1):92–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Topuz G, Çelik ÖF, Şengör AMC, Altintaş İE, Zack T, Rolland Y, Barth M (2013) Jurassic ophiolite formation and emplacement as backstop to a subduction-accretion complex in northeast Turkey, the Refahıye ophiolite, and relation to the Balkan ophiolites. Am J Sci 313(10):1054–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Tunç İO, Yiğitbaş E, Şengün F, Wazeck J, Hofmann M, Linnemann U (2012) U-Pb zircon geochronology of northern metamorphic massifs in the Biga Peninsula (NW Anatolia-Turkey): new data and a new approach to understand the tectonostratigraphy of the region. Geodin Acta 25(3–4):202–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Turhan N, Okuyucu C, Göncüoğlu MC (2004) Autochthonous upper Permian (Midian) carbonates in the Western Sakarya composite terrane, Geyve area, Turkey: preliminary data. Turk J Earth Sci 13:215–229Google Scholar
  200. Türkecan A (2015) Cenozoic volcanics of Turkey. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration Special Publication no 33, Ankara, p 258Google Scholar
  201. Tüysüz O (1999) Geology of the Cretaceous sedimentary basins of the Western Pontides. Geol J 34:75–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Tüysüz O, Keskin M, Sunal G (1999) The opening of Western Black Sea basin. Workshop V, Extended abstracts. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Ankara, p 62–4Google Scholar
  203. Üner T, Çakir Ü, Özdemir Y, Arat I (2014) Geochemistry and origin of plagiogranites from the Eldivan ophiolite, Çankırı (Central Anatolia, Turkey). Geol Carpath 65(3):197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Ural M, Arslan M, Göncüoğlu MC, Tekin UK, Kürüm S (2015) Late Cretaceous arc and back-arc formation within the southern Neotethys: whole-rock, trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data from basaltic rocks of the Yüksekova complex (Malatya- Elazig, SE Turkey). Ofioliti 40(1):57–72Google Scholar
  205. Ustaomer T, Robertson AHF (1999) Geochemical evidence used to test alternative plate tectonic models for pre-Upper Jurassic (Palaeotethyan) units in the Central Pontides, N Turkey. Geol J 34:25–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Ustaömer PA, Ustaömer T, Collins AS, Robertson AHF (2009) Cadomian (Ediacaran–Cambrian) arc magmatism in the Bitlis Massif, SE Turkey: magmatism along the developing northern margin of Gondwana. Tectonophysics 473:99–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Ustaömer PA, Ustaömer T, Robertson AHF (2012) Ion probe U-Pb dating of the Central Sakarya basement: a peri-Gondwana terrane intruded by late lower carboniferous subduction/collision- related granitic rocks. Turk J Earth Sci 21:905–932Google Scholar
  208. Ustaömer T, Ustaömer PA, Robertson AHW, Gerdes A (2016) Implications of U–Pb and Lu–Hf isotopic analysis of detrital zircons for the depositional age, provenance and tectonic setting of the Permian–Triassic Palaeotethyan Karakaya complex, NW Turkey. Int J Earth Sci 105(1):7–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Uysal I, Kalivoda M, Karsli O, Tarkian M, Sadiklar MB, Ottley CJ (2007) Compositional variations as a result of partial melting and melt-peridotite interaction in an upper mantle section from the Ortaca area, southwestern Turkey. Can Mineral 45:1471–1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Uzuncimen S, Tekin UK, Bedi Y, Perincek D, Varol E, Soycan H (2011) Discovery of the late Triassic (middle Carnian–Rhaetian) radiolarians in the volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Koçali complex, SE Turkey: correlation with the other Tauride units. Asian J Earth Sci 40:180–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Varol E, Bedi Y, Tekin UK, Uzuncimen S (2011) Geochemical and petro-logical characteristics of late Triassic basic volcanic rocks from the Kocali complex, SE Turkey: implications for the Triassic evolution of southern Tethys. Ofioliti 36:99–133Google Scholar
  212. Whitney DL, Hamilton MA (2004) Timing of high-grade metamorphism in central Turkey and the assembly of Anatolia. J Geol Soc Lond 161:823–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Wilson M, Tankut A, Guleç N (1997) Tertiary volcanism of the Galatia province, north-west Central Anatolia, Turkey. Lithos 42:105–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Yalınız MK, Floyd PA, Göncüoğlu MC (1996) Supra-subduction zone ophiolites of Central Anatolia: geochemical evidence from the Sarıkaraman Ophiolite, Aksaray, Turkey. Mineral Mag 60:697–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Yalınız MK, Göncüoğlu MC, Özkan-Altıner S, Parlak O (2000) Formation and emplacement ages of the SSZ-type Neotethyan ophiolites in Central Anatolia, Turkey: Paleotectonic implications. Geol J 35:53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Yanev S, Göncüoğlu MC, Gedik I, Lakova I, Boncheva I, Sachanski V, Okuyucu C, Özgül N, Timur E, Maliakov Y, Saydam G (2006) Stratigraphy, correlations and palaeogeography of Palaeozoic terranes in Bulgaria and NW Turkey: a review of recent data. In: Robertson AHF, Mountrakis D (eds) Tectonic development of the Eastern Meditteranean Region. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 260:51–67Google Scholar
  217. Yiğitbaş E, Yılmaz Y (1996) New evidence and solution to the Maden complex controversy of the southeast Anatolian orogenic belt (Turkey). Geol Rundsch 85(2):250–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Yiğitbaş E, Kerrich R, Yilmaz Y, Elmas A, Xie Q (2004) Characteristics and geochemistry of Precambrian ophiolites and related volcanics from the Istanbul–Zonguldak Unit, Northwestern Anatolia, Turkey: following the missing chain of the Precambrian South European suture zone to the east. Precambrian Res 132:179–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Yılmaz Y (1989) An approach to the origin of young volcanic rocks of Western Turkey. In: AMC Ş (ed) Tectonic evolution of the Tethyan region. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Hague, pp 159–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Yılmaz Y (1990) Allochthonous terranes of Tethyan Middle East: Anatolia and the surrounding regions. Phil Trans R Soc Lond A 331:611–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Yılmaz Y (1993) New evidence and model on the evolution of the Southeast Anatolian orogen. GSA Bull 105:251–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Yılmaz O, Boztuğ D (1986) Kastamonu granitoid belt of northern Turkey: first arc volcanism product related to the subduction of the Paleotethys. Geology 14:179–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Yılmaz C, Korkmaz S (1999) Basin development in the eastern Pontides, Jurassic to Cretaceous, NE Turkey. Zentralbl Geol Paläontol Teil I 10:1485–1494Google Scholar
  224. Yılmaz Şahin S, Güngör Y, Aysal N (2010) Granitoids of İstanbul. Proceedings, Geology of İstanbul III, p 100–129Google Scholar
  225. Yılmaz A, Yılmaz H (2006) Characteristic features and structural evolution of a post collisional basin: The Sivas Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Asian J Earth Sci 27(2):164–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Yilmaz Y, Yigitbas E, Genc ŞC (1993) Ophiolitic and metamorphic assemblages of southeast Anatolia and their significance in the geological evolution of the orogenic belt. Tectonics 12(5):1280–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Yılmaz Y, Tüysüz O, Yiğitbaş E, Genç ŞC, Şengör AMC (1997) Geology and tectonic evolution of the Pontides. In: Robinson AG (ed) Regional and petroleum geology of the black sea and surrounding region. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Memoir 68:183–226Google Scholar
  228. Yilmaz Y, Genç ŞC, Gürer F, Bozcu M, Yilmaz K, Karacik Z, Altunkaynak Ş, Elmas A (2000) When did the western Anatolian grabens begin to develop? In: Bozkurt E, Winchester JA, Piper JD (eds) Tectonics and magmatism in Turkey and the surrounding area. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 173:353–384Google Scholar
  229. Zlatkin O, Avigad D, Gerdes A (2013) Evolution and provenance of Neoproterozoic basement and Lower Paleozoic siliciclastic cover of the Menderes Massif (western Taurides): coupled U–Pb–Hf zircon isotope geochemistry. Gondwana Res 23:682–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geological EngineeringMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations