Advertisement

Turkish Borate Deposits: Geological Setting, Genesis and Overview of the Deposits

  • Cahit HelvacıEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Modern Approaches in Solid Earth Sciences book series (MASE, volume 16)

Abstract

Boron is widely distributed in the earth’s crust and the element boron does not exist freely by itself in nature, rather it occurs in combination with oxygen and other elements in salts, commonly known as borates. Boron is a rare element in the Earth’s crust, but extraordinary concentrations can be found in places. Four main continental borate provinces are recognized at a global scale. They are located in Anatolia (Turkey), California (USA), Central Andes (South America) and Tibet (Central Asia). The origin of borate deposits is related to Cenozoic volcanism, thermal spring activity, closed basins and arid climate. Borax is the major commercial source of boron, with major supplies coming from Turkey. Colemanite is the main calcium borate and large scale production is restricted to Turkey. Main borax (tincal) deposits are present in Anatolia (Kırka), California (Boron), and two in the Andes (Tincalayu and Loma Blanca). Colemanite deposits with/without probertite and hydroboracite are present in west Anatolia, Death Valley, California, and Sijes (Argentina). Quaternary borates are present in salars (Andes) and playa-lakes and salt pans (USA and Tibet). The Karapınar playa-lake is located in central Turkey. The formation of borate deposits consisting of a sodium– and calcium–borate hydrates group associated with playa-lake sediments and explosive volcanic activity. Some conditions are essential for the formation of economically viable borate deposits, playa-lake volcano-sedimentary sequences: formation of playa-lake environment; concentration of boron in the playa lake, sourced from andesitic to rhyolitic volcanics, direct ash fall into the basin, or hydrothermal solutions along faults; thermal springs near areas of volcanic activity; arid to semi-arid climatic conditions; and lake water with a pH of between 8.5 and 11. A large number of minerals contain boric oxide, but the three that are most important from a worldwide commercial standpoint are borax, ulexite, and colemanite, which are produced in a limited number of countries. Turkey has the largest borax, ulexite and colemanite reserves in the world and all the world’s countries are dependent upon the colemanite and ulexite reserves of Turkey. The main borate districts are located in Bigadiç, Kestelek, Sultançayır, Emet, Kırka and Göcenoluk areas. Most of the world’s commercial borate deposits are mined by open pit methods. Boric acid is one of the final products produced from most of the processes. Further research on the mineralogy and chemistry of borate minerals and associated minerals will the production and utilization of borate end-products. Many modern industries need industrial borate minerals, and many individuals use their products. Therefore, borates and associated products are critical for the sustainable development of the world.

Notes

Acknowledgments

I am especially grateful to Eti Maden and their mine managers for their generosity during fieldwork in Turkey. This study has been encouraged by several research projects supported by the Dokuz Eylül University (Project Numbers: 2005.KB. FEN.053; 2006.KB. FEN.001; 2009.KB. FEN.026; 2010.KB. FEN.009; and 0922.20.01.36) and the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK, Project No: YDAB. AG-100Y044 and ÇAYDAĞ-103Y124). Review comments by Franco Pirajno considerably improved the manuscript. Mustafa Helvacı is gratefully acknowledged for his typing and drafting assistances of the manuscript.

References

  1. Akdeniz N, Konak N (1979) Simav–Emet–Dursunbey–Demirci yörelerinin jeolojisi [Geology of the Simav–Emet–Dursunbey–Demirci areas]. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration report no. 6547 (In Turkish, unpublished)Google Scholar
  2. Aldanmaz E, Pearce JA, Thirwall MF, Mitchell JG (2000) Petrogenetic evolution of late Cenozoic, post-collision volcanism in western Anatolia, Turkey. J Volcanol Geoth Res 102:67–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altunkaynak Ş, Dilek Y, Genç ŞC, Sunal G, Gertisser R, Furnes H, Foland KA, Yang J (2012) Spatial, temporal and geochemical evolution of Oligo-Miocene granitoid magmatism in western Anatolia, Turkey. Gondwana Res 21:961–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alıcı P, Temel A, Gourgaud A (2002) Pb-Nd-Sr isotope and trace element geochemistry of Quaternary extension-related alkaline volcanism: a case study of Kula region (western Anatolia, Turkey). J Volcanol Geoth Res 115:487–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arda T (1969) Kırka boraks yatağı [Kırka borax deposit]. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration Report no. 436 (In Turkish, unpublished)Google Scholar
  6. Aristarain LF, Hurlbut CS Jr (1972) Boron minarals and deposits. Mineral Rec 3(165–172):213–220Google Scholar
  7. Baysal O (1972) Mineralogic and genetic studies of the Sarıkaya (Kırka) Borate deposits. PhD thesis, Hacettepe University, Turkey (in Turkish, unpublished)Google Scholar
  8. Bellon H, Jarrige JJ, Sorel D (1979) Les activités magmatiques égéennes de l’Oligocène a nos jours, et leurs cadres géodynamiques, donées nouvelles et synthèse. Rev Géogr Phys Géol Dyn 21:41–55Google Scholar
  9. Bingöl E, Delaloye M, Ataman G (1982) Granitic intrusions in western Anatolia: a contribution to the geodynamic study of this area. Eclogae Geol Helv 75:437–446Google Scholar
  10. Bozkurt E (2003) Origin of NE-trending basins in western Turkey. Geodin Acta 16:61–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Çemen İ, Ersoy EY, Helvacı C, Sert S, Alemdar S, Billor Z (2014) AAPG datapages/search and discovery article #90194 2014 International conference and exhibition, Istanbul, Turkey, September 14–17, 2014Google Scholar
  12. Çoban H, Karacık Z, Ece ÖI (2012) Source contamination and tectonomagmatic signals of overlapping Early to Middle Miocene orogenic magmas associated with shallow continental subduction and asthenospheric mantle flows in Western Anatolia: a record from Simav (Kütahya) region. Lithos 140–141:119–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooper MA, Hawthorne FC, Garcia-Veigas J, Alcobé X, Helvacı C, Grew ES, Ball NA (2016) Fontarnauite, (Na, K)2 (Sr,Ca) (SO4) [B5O8 (OH)] (H2O)2, a new sulfate-borate from Doğanlar (Emet), Kütahya Province, Western Anatolia, Turkey. Can Mineral 53:1–20Google Scholar
  14. Dunn JF (1986) The structural geology of the northeastern Whipple Mountains detachment fault terrane, San Bernardino County, California. MSc thesis (unpublished) Los Angeles, California, University of Southern California, p 172Google Scholar
  15. Engineering and Mining Journal (2012) Industrial minerals-The boron country. Eng Min J 213, 1, January, p 61Google Scholar
  16. Ercan E, Dinçel A, Metin S, Türkecan A, Günay A (1978) Uşak yöresindeki Neojen havzalarının jeolojisi [Geology of the Neogene basins in Uşak region]. Bull Geol Soc Turk 21:97–106 (In Turkish)Google Scholar
  17. Ercan E, Türkecan A, Dinçel A, Günay A (1983) Kula-Selendi (Manisa) dolaylarının jeolojisi [Geology of Kula-Selendi (Manisa) area]. Geol Eng 17:3–28 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  18. Ercan E, Satır M, Sevin D, Türkecan A (1997) BatıAnadolu’dakiTersiyer ve Kuvaterner yaşlı volkanik kayaçlarda yeni yapılan radyometrik yaşölçümlerinin yorumu [Some new radiometric ages tertiary and quaternary volcanic rocks from West Anatolia]. Bull Min Res Explor 119:103–112 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  19. Erdoğan B (1990) Tectonic relations between İzmir–Ankara Zone and Karaburun Belt. Bull Min Res Explor 110:1–15Google Scholar
  20. Erkül F, Helvacı C, Sözbilir H (2005a) Stratigraphy and geochronology of the early Miocene volcanic units in the Bigadiç borate basin, Western Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 14:227–253Google Scholar
  21. Erkül F, Helvacı C, Sözbilir H (2005b) Evidence for two episodes of volcanism in the Bigadic borate basin and tectonic implications for Western Turkey. Geol J 40:545–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Erkül F, Helvacı C, Sözbilir H (2006) Olivine basalt and trachyandesitepeperites formed at the subsurface/surface interface of a semi-arid lake: an example from the Early Miocene Bigadiç basin, western Turkey. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 149:240–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ersoy Y, Helvacı C (2007) Stratigraphy and geochemical features of the Early Miocene bimodal (ultrapotassic and calc-alkaline) volcanic activity within the NE-trending Selendi basin, western Anatolia, Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 16:117–139Google Scholar
  24. Ersoy EY, Helvacı C, Sözbilir H, Erkül F, Bozkurt E (2008) A geochemical approach to Neogene–Quaternary volcanic activity of the western Anatolia: an example of episodic bimodal volcanism within the Selendi Basin. Chem Geol 255(1–2):265–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ersoy EY, Helvacı C, Sözbilir H (2010) Tectonic evolution of the NE-trending superimposed Selendi Basin, Western Anatolia, Turkey. Tectonophysics 488(1–4):210–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ersoy EY, Helvacı C, Palmer MR (2011) Stratigraphic, structural and geochemical features of the NE–SW-trending Neogene volcano-sedimentary basins in western Anatolia: implications for associations of supradetachment and transtensional strike-slip basin formation in extensional tectonic setting. J Asian Earth Sci 41:159–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ersoy EY, Helvacı C, Palmer MR (2012a) Petrogenesis of the Neogene volcanic units in the NE–SW-trending basins in western Anatolia, Turkey. Contrib Mineral Petrol 163:379–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ersoy YE, Helvacı C, Uysal İ, Palmer MR, Karaoğlu Ö (2012b) Petrogenesis of the Miocene volcanism along the İzmir-Balıkesir transfer zone in western Anatolia, Turkey: implications for origin and evolution of potassic volcanism in post-collisional areas. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 241–242:21–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ersoy EY, Çemen İ, Helvacı C, Billor Z (2014) Tectono-stratigraphy of the Neogene basins in Western Turkey: implications for tectonic evolution of the Aegean extended region. Tectonophysics 635:33–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Floyd PA, Helvacı C, Mittwede SK (1998) Geochemical discrimination of volcanic rocks, associated with borate deposits: an exproation tool. J Geochem Explor 60:185–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fytikas M, Innocenti F, Manetti P, Mazzuoli R, Peccerillo A, Villari L (1984) Tertiary to quaternary evolution of volcanism in the Aegean region. In: Dixon JE, Robertson AHF (eds) The Geological evolution of the eastern Mediterranean. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 17, pp 687–699Google Scholar
  32. García-Veigas J, Helvacı C (2013) Mineralogy and sedimentology of the Miocene Göcenoluk borate deposit, Kırka district, western Anatolia, Turkey. Sediment Geol 290:85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. García-Veigas J, Ortí F, Rosell L, Gündoğan I, Helvacı C (2010) Occurrence of a new sulphate mineral Ca7Na3K(SO4)9 in the Emet borate deposits, western Anatolia (Turkey). Geol Q 54:431–438Google Scholar
  34. García-Veigas J, Rosell L, Ortí F, Gündoğan İ, Helvacı C (2011) Mineralogy, diagenesis and hydrochemical evolution in a probertite–glauberite–halite saline lake (Miocene, Emet Basin, Turkey). Chem Geol 280:352–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Garrett DE (1998) Borates. In: Handbook of deposits, processing, properties, and use. Academic Press, London, p 483Google Scholar
  36. Gawlik J (1956) Borate deposits of the Emet Neogene basin. General Directorate of Mineral research and Exploration report no. 2479, Ankara (in Turkish and German, unpublished)Google Scholar
  37. Gök S, Çakır A, Dündar A (1980) Stratigraphy, petrography and tectonics of the borate-bearing Neogene in the vicinity of Kırka. Bull Geol Congr Turk 2:53–62Google Scholar
  38. Grew ES, Anovita LM (1996) Boron. Mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry. Reviews in mineralogy. Miner Soc Am vol 33 Washington, DC, 862pGoogle Scholar
  39. Güleç N (1991) Crust-mantle interaction in western Turkey: implications from Sr and Nd isotope geochemistry of tertiary and quaternary volcanics. Geol Mag 23:417–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gündoğan İ, Helvacı C (1993) Geology, mineralogy and economic potential of Sultançayır (Susurluk-Balıkesir) boratiferous gypsum basin. Bull Geol Soc Turk 36:159–172 (in Turkish with English abstract)Google Scholar
  41. Gündoğdu MN, Bonnot-Courtois C, Clauer N (1989) Isotopic and chemical signatures of sedimentary smectite and diagenetic clinoptilolite of a lacustrine Neogene basin near Bigadiç, western Turkey. Appl Geochem 4:635–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hasözbek A, Satir M, Erdoğan B, Akay E, Siebel W (2011) Early Miocene post-collisional magmatism in NW Turkey: geochemical and geochronological constraints. Int Geol Rev 53:1098–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Helvacı C (1977) Geology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the borate deposits and associated rocks and the Emet Valley, Turkey. PhD thesis University of Nottingham, England (unpublished)Google Scholar
  44. Helvacı C (1978) A review of the mineralogy of the Turkish borate deposits. Mercian Geol 6:257–270Google Scholar
  45. Helvacı C (1983) Mineralogy of the Turkish borate deposits. Geol Eng 17:37–54Google Scholar
  46. Helvacı C (1984) Occurence of rare borate-minerals: veatchite-A, tunellite, teruggite and cahnite in the Emet borate deposits, Turkey. Miner Deposita 19:217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Helvacı C (1986) Geochemistry and origin of the Emet borate deposits, western Turkey. Faculty of Engineering Bulletin, Cumhuriyet University, Series A. Earth Sciences 3, pp 49–73Google Scholar
  48. Helvacı C (1989) A mineralogical approach to the mining, storing and marketing problems of the Turkish borate production. Geol Eng 34–35:5–17Google Scholar
  49. Helvacı C (1994) Mineral assemblages and formation of the Kestelek and Sultançıyır borate deposits. Proceedings of 29th International Geological Congress, Kyoto Part A, pp 245–264Google Scholar
  50. Helvacı C (1995) Stratigraphy, mineralogy, and genesis of the Bigadiç borate deposits, western Turkey. Econ Geol 90:1237–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Helvacı C (2005) Borates. In: Selley RC, Cocks LRM, Plimer IR (eds) Encyclopedia of geology, vol 3. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 510–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Helvacı C (2012) Trip to Kışladağ (Uşak) Gold Mine, Kırka and Emet borates deposits. Post colloquium field trip guide book. International Earth Sciences Colloquium on the Agean Region, IESCA 2012, İzmir, Turkey, 41pGoogle Scholar
  53. Helvacı C (2015) Geological features of Neogene basins hosting borate deposits: an overview of deposits and future forecast, Turkey. Bull Min Res Explor 151:169–215Google Scholar
  54. Helvacı C, Alonso RN (2000) Borate deposits of Turkey and Argentina: a summary and geological comparison. Turk J Earth Sci 24:1–27Google Scholar
  55. Helvacı C, Ercan T (1993) Recent borate salts and associated volcanism in the Karapınar Basin (Konya), Turkey 46th Geological Congress of Turkish Abstracts, pp 102–103Google Scholar
  56. Helvacı C, Erkül F (2002) Soma ve Bigadiçarasındaki (BatıAnadolu) volkanik fasiyeslerin sedimentolojik, petrografik ve jeokimyasal veriler ışığında kökensel yorumu [Interpretation of volcanic facies origin of Soma and Bigadiç area (west Anatolia)]. Dokuz Eylül University AFS Project No: 0922.20.01.36, 82 p. (in Turkish, unpublished)Google Scholar
  57. Helvacı C, Ersoy EY (2006) The facies characteristics and geochemical featuresof the volcanic rocks of the Selendi and Simav area, and their relations with the basin sedimentary rocks, western Anatolia. DEÜ Scientific Research Project no. 03.KB. FEN.058. January 2006, İzmir, 116 p. (in Turkish, unpublished)Google Scholar
  58. Helvacı C, Firman RJ (1976) Geological setting and mineralogy of Emet borate deposit, Turkey. Trans Sect B Inst Min Met 85:142–152Google Scholar
  59. Helvacı C, Orti F (1998) Sedimentology and diagenesis of Miocene colemanite-ulexite deposits (western Anatolia, Turkey). J Sediment Res 68:1021–1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Helvacı C, Ortí F (2004) Zoning in the Kırka borate deposit, western Turkey: primary evaporitic fractionation or diagenetic modifications? Can Miner 42:1179–1204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Helvacı C, Yağmurlu F (1995) Geological setting and economic potential of the lignite and evaporite-bearing Neogene basins of Western Anatolia, Turkey. Isr J Earth Sci 44:91–105Google Scholar
  62. Helvacı C, Yücel-Öztürk Y (2013) Bor minerallerinin fluorescent yöntemiyle çalışılması [Study of borate minerals with fluorescent method]. DEU 2010 KB FEN 9, 25.03.2013. (In Turkish, unpublished)Google Scholar
  63. Helvacı C, Stamatakis MG, Zagouroglou C, Kanaris J (1993) Borate minerals and related authigenicsilicates in northeastern Mediterraean Late Miocene continental basins. Explor Min Geol 2:171–178Google Scholar
  64. Helvacı C, Sözbilir H, Erkül F (2003) Soma ve Bigadiç arasındaki (BatıAnadolu) volkanik fasiyeslerin sedimentlojik, petrografik ve jeokimyasal veriler ışığında kökensel yorumu [Interpretation of volcanic facies origin of Soma and Bigadiç area (west Anatolia)]. Turkish National Research Council Project No: YDABCAG/100Y044, İzmir, 155 p. (in Turkish, unpublished)Google Scholar
  65. Helvacı C, Ersoy Y, Erkül F, Sözbilir H, Bozkurt E (2006) Selendi Havzasının stratigrafik, petrografik, jeokimyasal ve tektonik veriler ışığında volkono-sedimanter evrimi ve ekonomik potansiyeli [Volcanosedimentary evaluation and economic potential of the Selendi basin with regard to stratigraphy, petrpgraphy, geochemical and tectonic data]. Turkish National Research Council Project no: ÇAYDAĞ/103Y124, Aralık 2006, 134 p. (in Turkish, unpublished)Google Scholar
  66. Helvacı C, Karaoğlu Ö, Ersoy Y, Erkül F, Bozkurt E (2009) Volcano-Tectonic evolution of the Uşak-Eşme-Banaz basin: an approach to stratigraphic, sedimentologic and geochemical view. Dokuz Eylül University Scientific Research Project No: 2005.KB. FEN.053, September 2009, İzmir, 75 p. (in Turkish, unpublished)Google Scholar
  67. Helvacı C, Orti F, Garcia-Veigas J., Rosell L, Gündoğan İ, Yücel-Öztürk Y (2012) Neogene borate deposits: mineralogy, petrology and sedimentology; a workshop with special emphasis on the Anatolian deposits. International Earth Sciences Colloquium on the Agean Region, IESCA 2012, İzmir, Turkey, 64pGoogle Scholar
  68. Helvacı and Ersoy K (1972) New borate district, Eskişehir-Kırka province, Turkey. Inst Min Met 8l:B163–Bl65Google Scholar
  69. İnan K (1972) New borate district, Eskişehir-Kırka province, Turkey. Inst Min Met 8l:B163–Bl65Google Scholar
  70. İnan K, Dunham AC, Esson J (1973) Mineralogy, chemistry and origin of Kırka borate deposit, Eskişehir Province, Turkey. Trans Sect B Inst Min Met 82:114–123Google Scholar
  71. İnci U (1984) Neogene oil shale deposits of Demirci and Burhaniye regions. 27th International Geological Congress, Abs vol. VII, 13–16 (57)Google Scholar
  72. Innocenti F, Agostini S, Di Vincenzo G, Doglioni C, Manetti P, Savaflç›n MY, Tonarini S (2005) Neogene and quaternary volcanism in Western Anatolia: magma sources and geodynamic evolution. Mar Geol 221:397–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jackson J, McKenzie D (1984) Active tectonics of the Alpine-Himalayan Belt between western Turkey and Pakistan. Geophys J R Astron Soc 77:185–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Karaoğlu Ö, Helvacı C, Ersoy EY (2010) Petrogenesis and 40 Ar/39 Ar geochronology of the volcanic rocks of the Uşak–Güre basin, western Türkiye. Lithos 119:193–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kistler RB, Helvacı C (1994) Boron and borates. In: Carr DD (ed) Industrial minearls and rocks, 6th edn. Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Littleton, pp 171–186Google Scholar
  76. Krushensky RD (1976) Neogene calc-alkaline extrusive and intrusive rocks of the Karalar Yeşiller area, Northwest Anatolia, vol 40. Bulletin volcanologique, Turkey, pp 336–360Google Scholar
  77. Meixner H (1965) Borate deposits of Turkey. Bull Min Res Explor 125:1–2Google Scholar
  78. MTA (2002) 1/500,000 Scaled Geology Map, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  79. Muessig S (1959) Primary borates in playa deposits: minerals of high hydration. Econ Geol 54:495–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. O’Driscoll M (2011) Rio Tinto minerals declares force majeure on sodium borates: industrial minerals. January 31. Accessed 1 Oct 2012, at http://www.indmin.com/
  81. Ocakoğlu F (2007) A re-evaluation of the Eskişehir fault zone as a recent extensional structure in NW Turkey. J Asian Earth Sci 31:91–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Okay Aİ, Satır M, Maluski H, Siyako M, Monie P, Metzger R, Akyüz S (1996) Paleo- and Neo-Tethyan events in northwestern Turkey: geologic and geochronologic contraints. In: Yin A, Harrison M (eds) The tectonic evolution of Asia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 420–441Google Scholar
  83. Orti F, Helvacı C, Rosell L, Gündoğan İ (1998) Sulphate-borate relations in an evaporitic lacustrine environmet: the Sultançayır Gypsum (Miocene, Western Anatolia). Sedimentology 45:697–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Okay AI, Siyako M (1991) The New Position of the İzmir-Ankara Neo-Tethyan Suture between İzmir and Balıkesir. In: Proceedings of the Ozan Sungurlu Symp., pp. 333–355Google Scholar
  85. Ozol AA (1977) Plate Tectonics and the process of volcanogenic-sedimentary formation of Boron. Int Geol Rev 20:692–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Özpeker İ (1969) Western Anatolian borate deposits and their genetic studies. PhD dissertation, İstanbul Technical University (in Turkish with English abstract, unpublished)Google Scholar
  87. Palache C, Berman H, Frondel C (1951) The system of mineralogy, vol 2, 7th edn. John Wiley & Sons, New York, p 1124Google Scholar
  88. Palmer MR, Helvacı C (1995) The boron geochemistiry of the Kırka borate deposit, western Turkey. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59:3599–3605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Palmer MR, Helvacı C (1997) The boron istope geochemistry of the Neogene borate deposits of western Turkey. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61:3161–3169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pe-Piper G, Piper DJW (2007) Late Miocene igneous rocks of Samos: the role of tectonism in petrogenesis in the southeastern Aegean. Geol Soc Lond, Spec Publ 291:75–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Preleviç D, Akal C, Foley F, Romer RL, Stracke A, van den Bogaard P (2012) Ultrapotassic mafic rocks as geochemical proxies for postcollisional dynamics of orogenic lithospheric mantle: the case of southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. J Petrol 53:1019–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Purvis M, Robertson AHF (2005) Miocene sedimentary evolution of the NE-SW-trending Selendi and Gördes Basins, Western Turkey: implications for extensional processes. Sediment Geol 174:31–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rio Tinto plc (2011) Form 20–F – annual report for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010: Washington, DC, Securities and Exchange Commission, March 15. Accessed 27 Sept 2012, at http://www.secinfo.com/
  94. Ring U, Collins AS (2005) U-Pb SIMS dating of synkinematic granites: timing of core-complex formation in the northern Anatolide belt of western Turkey. J Geol Soc 162(2):289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Roskill Information Services Ltd. (2010) Boron – Global industry markets and outlook. Roskill Information Services, London, 243 pGoogle Scholar
  96. Seghedi I, Helvacı C (2014) Early Miocene Kırka-Phrigian caldera, western Anatolia – an example of large volume silicic magma generation in extensional setting. Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-5789, 2014 EGU General Assembly, Vienna, 2014Google Scholar
  97. Seghedi I, Helvacı C, Pécskayc Z (2015) Composite volcanoes in the south-eastern part of İzmir–Balıkesir Transfer Zone, Western Anatolia, Turkey. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 291:72–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Şengör AMC (1984) The cimmeride orogenic system and the tectonics of Eurasia. Geol Soc Am Spec Paper 195 pGoogle Scholar
  99. Şengör AMC, Yılmaz Y (1981) Tethyan Evolution of Turkey: a plate tectonic approach. Tectonophysics 75:181–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Seyitoğlu G (1997a) Late Cenozoic tectono-sedimentary development of the Selendi and Uşak–Güre basins: a contribution to the discussion on the development of east–west and north trending basins in Western Turkey. Geol Mag 134:163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Seyitoğlu G (1997b) The Simavgraben: an example of young E–W trending structures in the late Cenozoic extensional system of Western Turkey. Turk J Earth Sci 6:135–141Google Scholar
  102. Seyitoğlu G, Scott BC (1992) Late Cenozoic volcanic evolution of the NE Aegean region. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 54:157–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sunder MS (1980) Geochemistry of the Sarıkaya borate deposits (Kırka-Eskişehir). Bull Geol Soc Turk 2:19–34Google Scholar
  104. Travis NJ, Cocks EJ (1984) The Tincal trail. A history of borax. Harrap, London, p 311Google Scholar
  105. Uyanik T (2010) Mining: Ankara, Turkey, export promotion center of Turkey. August, 7 p. Accessed 1 Oct 2012, at http://www.tcp.gov.tr/Assets/sip/san/Mining.pdf
  106. Watanebe T (1964) Geochemical cycle and concentration of boron in the earth’s crust. V.I. Verdenskii Inst. Geochim Analit Chem USSR 2:167–177Google Scholar
  107. Yiğit O (2009) Mineral deposits of Turkey in relation to Tethyan metallogeny: implications for future mineral exploration. Econ Geol 104:19–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yılmaz Y (1990) Comparison of young volcanic associations of western and eastern Anatolia formed under a compressional regime: a review. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 44:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Yılmaz Y, Genç SC, Gürer OF, Bozcu M, Yılmaz K, Karacık Z, Altunkaynak Ş, Elmas A (2000) When did the western Anatolian grabens begin to develop? In: Bozkurt E, Winchester JA, Piper JDA (eds) Tectonics and magmatism in Turkey and the surrounding area. Geol Soc London, Spec Publ 173, pp 353–384Google Scholar
  110. Yücel-Öztürk Y, Ay S, Helvacı C (2014) Bor Minerallerinin Duraylı İzotop Jeokimyası: Bigadiç (Balıkesir) Borat Yatağından Bir Örnek [Stable isotope geochemistry of the Boron minerals: an example from Bigadiç (Balıkesir) borate deposits]. Yerbilimleri 35(1):37–54 (in Turkish with English abstract)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering Geology DepartmentDokuz Eylul UniversityIzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations