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Carbonate-Hosted Pb-Zn Deposits of Turkey

  • Nurullah HanilçiEmail author
  • Hüseyin Öztürk
  • Cem Kasapçı
Chapter
Part of the Modern Approaches in Solid Earth Sciences book series (MASE, volume 16)

Abstract

The carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits in Turkey are located in the Tauride belt, which is a part of Alpine-Himalayan orogenic systems. Most of the carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits that occur in the Tauride passive margin carbonate sequence have been identified as MVT because of the geological environment, ore characteristics, formation temperature and isotope geochemistry (e.g., the Hadim-Bozkır region, Aladağ-Zamantı region). The style of mineralization and geochemical data of Zn-Pb deposits in the Hakkari region is resembles to the SEDEX type deposits in terms of slightly higher homogenization temperature and lower salinity than MVT, stratiform ore zones parallel to each other, and high contents of As, Mo, Sb, Tl and Hg. Apart from the MVT and SEDEX Pb-Zn deposits, there is a carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposit in the Horzum (Adana-Turkey) province, which has been identified as a carbonate-replacement Pb-Zn deposit (CRD Pb-Zn) due to its higher formation temperature (average 235 °C) and higher temperature mineral paragenesis (e.g. bornite, arsenopyrite and argentite) than the MVT.

The mining history of the carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits in Turkey goes back to Roman times. At present, approximately 0.2 Mt of Pb-Zn carbonate-oxide ore with average grades of 20% Zn and 8% Pb are produced annually from the carbonate-hosted deposits in the Tauride belt in Turkey. Currently, mining takes place at shallow depths (0–50 m), and drilling programs are limited so that in the generally carbonate sequences of the Tauride belt, especially in the Hakkari Province, there is a significant potential for finding new and possibly” world-class” carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Cemil Alp (Geological Eng.) and Abdullah Malkoçoğlu (Mining Eng.) for the Havadan region deposit data, Çavuş Altunbulak (Geological Eng.) and Ali Elmaağaç (Mining Eng.) for the Ayraklı deposit data, Mustafa Koyuncu (Koyuncu Maden Company) for the Göynük deposit data, and Akmetal Mining for the Horzum deposit data. Thanks to Dr. David A. Banks (University of Leeds) for his critical contribution on geochemical interpretation. We thank Prof. Franco Pirajno, Dr. Bahadır Şahin and Cahit Dönmez for their helpful editorial advice. This chapter was supported by İÜ-BAP (YADOP-37096) and by the TUBITAK (project ÇAYDAG-114Y554).

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Nurullah Hanilçi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hüseyin Öztürk
    • 1
  • Cem Kasapçı
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geological Engineering, Avcilar Campusİstanbul University-CerrahpaşaİstanbulTurkey

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