Advertisement

The Early Twentieth Century, 1900–1931

  • Gregory Neocleous
Chapter

Abstract

The beginning of the twentieth century found Cyprus in the same social and economic condition as it was when the British arrived in 1878. Although there had been some economic progress with some commerce, mainly exports of agricultural products (i.e. olives, carobs), the living conditions for the mass of the population remained extremely poor. This was due not only to the maintenance of heavy taxation and the tribute, as explained in the previous chapter, which had removed a huge amount of money from the local economy but also to the fact that there was no form of state intervention in terms of social support, education, health care or social insurance.

Bibliography

Primary Sources

  1. Antoniou, L. (2004). Little Hands: The Contribution of Children in the Cyprus Mines During the 20th Century. Nicosia: Centre for the Study of Childhood and Adolescence.Google Scholar
  2. Chrysostomou, T. (2009, September 7). Personal Interview. Social Welfare Department. Nicosia, with G. Neocleous.Google Scholar
  3. Department of Labour. (1941). Annual Report of the Department of Labour. Nicosia: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  4. Fantis, A. (1997). From the People…With People…for the People. Nicosia: Fantis.Google Scholar
  5. Fantis, A. (2005). The Cyprus Trade Union Movement During the British Colonial Era (1878–1960). Nicosia: Fantis.Google Scholar
  6. Lasettas, C. (2005). Social Security in Cyprus and the Role of PEO 1947–2005. Syntaxiouhos, 2005, 44–45.Google Scholar
  7. Paulikkas, A., & Pieri, P. (2006). Pancyprian Federation of Labour (PEO): History, Targets, Achievements in Brief. Nicosia: PEO.Google Scholar
  8. PEO. (1983a). The Struggle of PEO for Social Insurance in Cyprus. Nicosia: PEO.Google Scholar
  9. PEO. (1983b, November 10–13). Minutes from the 19th Conference. Nicosia (Unpublished).Google Scholar
  10. PEO. (1987). 1956–1986:30 Years Social Insurance; PEO has Changed Our Lives. Nicosia: PEO.Google Scholar
  11. PEO. (1991). Social Insurance-PEO Enlightens Workers and Pensioners. Nicosia: PEO.Google Scholar
  12. PEO. (1998). The Struggles of Miners Contributed to the Improvement of Life in Our Country. Nicosia: Trade Union of Construction Workers, Carpenters, Miners and General Employees of Cyprus.Google Scholar
  13. PEO. (2006). History, Targets, Achievements in Brief. Nicosia: PEO.Google Scholar
  14. Protopapas, A. (2010, October 22). Personal Interview. The House of Elders. Nicosia, with G. Neocleous Nicosia.Google Scholar
  15. PSE. (1941a). Report to the II Pancyprian Labour Conference on November 16. Nicosia: PEO (Unpublished).Google Scholar
  16. SEK. (1984). History, Structure, Development, Activities. Ergatiki Phonie (Labour Voice), 1984, 7.Google Scholar
  17. Sparsis, M. (1999). A Brief History of the Cyprus Labour Movement and the Cypriot Employers’ Associations. Nicosia: Sparsis.Google Scholar
  18. Stampolis, A. (1963). The Social Economic Development of Cyprus. Nicosia: Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance.Google Scholar
  19. Surridge, B. J. (1930). A Survey of Rural Life in Cyprus. Nicosia: Cyprus Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  20. The Pensions Ordinance, 15 of 1882. Nicosia: Government Print.Google Scholar
  21. The Trade Union Act, 1871 [Great Britain] [Online]. Available at: http://www.worldlii.org/cgi-bin/download.cgi/download/nie/legis/num_act/tua18 71132.txt. Accessed 23 Feb 2011.
  22. Varnava, P. (1989). A Miner Recalls. Nicosia: PEO.Google Scholar
  23. Varnava, P. (1990). Fighting for Life. Nicosia: PEO.Google Scholar
  24. Varnava, P. (1999). Recollections [Through the Press]. Nicosia: Varnava.Google Scholar
  25. Varnava, P. (2006, November 16). Personal Interview. The Evolution of the Labour Movement in Cyprus. Nicosia, with G. Neocleous.Google Scholar

Cyprus State Archives

  1. SA1/3944/1902. Road Foremen: Recommends Improvement of Their Conditions in the State by Gratuity them Pensions or Liability. Letter from the Public Works Department. Report Draft of Foremen Ali Tsaoush. Retrieved from the National Archives. Nicosia: National Archives.Google Scholar
  2. SA1/1407/1903. Questions of Granting Pension Instead of Gratuity on Discharge to No. 371 Private Ali Mustafa. Recommendation for the Payment of a Pension or Gratuity Under “The Police Pensions Law, 1895.” From Cyprus Police Commandant. Retrieved from the National Archives. Nicosia: National Archives.Google Scholar
  3. SA1/1109/1903. Post of Chief Clerk and Sub-Local Commandant of Police (To be Made Pensionable). From Cyprus Police, Chief Commandant. Retrieved from the National Archives. Nicosia: National Archives.Google Scholar
  4. SA1/1288/1903. Sergeant No. 29. Salih Mehmed Emir Praying for Pension Instead of Quality on Discharge. Minutes Extracted from C.S. Paper No. 52/02. The Office of Commissioner, Famagusta. Retrieved from the National Archives. Nicosia: National Archives.Google Scholar
  5. SA1/311/1906. Customs Guard Zimet Mehmet: Illness of & Interest that a Medical Board Should Examine (Recommendation on Pension). From Cyprus Police, Chief Commandant. Retrieved from the National Archives. Nicosia: National Archives.Google Scholar
  6. SA1/363/1908, Pension Law, 1905: Computation of Pensions. Retrieved from the National Archives. Nicosia: National Archives.Google Scholar
  7. SA1/1368/30/1. Trade Union Legislation. Press Comments on Comments of Trade Unions. Retrieved from the National Archives. Nicosia: National Archives.Google Scholar
  8. SA1/1368/30/2. Trade Union Legislation in the Colonies, Protectorates and Mandated Territories. Retrieved from the National Archives. Nicosia: National Archives.Google Scholar

Letters

  1. Smith, H. (1903). Letter by Haynes Smith to Chamberlain. 5 January, 1903. C.1434.Google Scholar

Newspapers

  1. Alitheia. (1925, August 10). Editorial: Issues [Zitimata], p. 1.Google Scholar
  2. Eleftheria. (1915a, January 30). Editorial: The People are Hungry, p. 3.Google Scholar
  3. Eleftheria. (1915b, March 6). Editorial: Ridiculous Economies, p. 1.Google Scholar
  4. Eleftheria. (1915c, April 10). Editorial: The Financial Situation, p. 1.Google Scholar
  5. Eleftheria. (1915d, July 3). Editorial: The Scourge of Beggars, p. 1.Google Scholar
  6. Eleftheria. (1915e, August 21). Editorial: Hardship on the island, p. 1.Google Scholar
  7. Eleftheria. (1915f, September 30). Editorial: The Poverty Issue, p. 2.Google Scholar
  8. Eleftheria. (1916, February 5). Editorial: Helping the Destitute, A Good will is Required, p.1.Google Scholar
  9. Eleftheria. (1920a, February 28). Editorial: Health in Villages, p. 1.Google Scholar
  10. Eleftheria. (1920b, September 18). Editorial: Employees’ Salaries, p. 1.Google Scholar
  11. Eleftheria. (1924, July 24). Editorial: Increase in Government Products, p. 2.Google Scholar
  12. Eleftheria. (1925a, March 21). Editorial: Tragic Accident in Skouriotissa, p. 1.Google Scholar
  13. Eleftheria. (1925b, November 7). Editorial: On Cyprus. For the Year 1924, p. 2.Google Scholar
  14. Kypriakos Fylax. (1910a, March 6). Editorial: National Education and School Fees, p. 1.Google Scholar
  15. Kypriakos Fylax. (1910b, March 20). Editorial: Loveless Foreign Occupation, [‘Αστοργος ξενοκρατία], p. 1.Google Scholar
  16. Kypriakos Fylax. (1910c, April 16). Editorial: Gloomy Economic Picture, p. 1.Google Scholar
  17. Kyrix. (1919a, May 3). Editorial: Trade Unions, p. 3.Google Scholar
  18. Kyrix. (1919b, September 13). Editorial: Trade Unions, p. 2.Google Scholar
  19. Neos Anthropos. (1925a, January 1). Editorial: Establishment of Trade Unions, p. 1.Google Scholar
  20. Neos Anthropos. (1925b, February 1). Editorial: Nicosia Workers, p. 1.Google Scholar
  21. Neos Anthropos. (1925c, May 1). Editorial: Working Conditions, p. 1.Google Scholar
  22. Neos Anthropos. (1925d, July 15). Editorial: To Know [Να το ξέρουνε], p. 1.Google Scholar
  23. Neos Anthropos. (1926, May 15). Editorial: May 1st, p. 1.Google Scholar
  24. Neos Anthropos. (1927, May 1). Editorial: Working Conditions in Amiantos [Asbestos] Mine, p. 1.Google Scholar
  25. Phonie tis Kyprou. (1900a, January 1). Editorial: Uncertainty, p. 1.Google Scholar
  26. Phonie tis Kyprou. (1900b, January 12). Editorial: Neon Etos [New Year], p. 1.Google Scholar
  27. Phonie tis Kyprou. (1900c, February 23). Editorial: The Opening of the House. The Opening Speech, p. 2.Google Scholar
  28. Phonie tis Kyprou. (1900d, March 23). Editorial: The New Budget, p. 1.Google Scholar
  29. Phonie tis Kyprou. (1900e, March 23). Editorial: The Beggars, p. 2.Google Scholar
  30. Phonie tis Kyprou. (1901, March 17). Editorial: A Dangerous Enemy, p.1.Google Scholar
  31. Phonie tis Kyprou. (1910a, February 19). Editorial: The Warehousemen, p. 1.Google Scholar
  32. Phonie tis Kyprou. (1910b, December 24). Editorial: Hunger, p. 1.Google Scholar
  33. Phonie tis Kyprou. (1925a, March 21). Editorial: Tragic Accident in Skouriotissa Mine Killing 10 and Severely Injured 4, p. 1.Google Scholar
  34. Phonie tis Kyprou. (1925b, May 2). Editorial: Protection of Mines and Miners, p. 1.Google Scholar
  35. Phonie tis Kyprou. (1925c, May 16). Editorial: The Subordination Tax. Real Economic Gangrene, p. 1.Google Scholar
  36. Phonie tis Kyprou. (1925d, November 28). Editorial: The Legal Protection of the Working Classes, p. 1.Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

  1. Agathangelou, A. (1997). The Cypriot Ethnic’ Conflict in the Production of Global Power. PhD, Syracuse University (Unpublished).Google Scholar
  2. AKEL. (1986). History of KKK-AKEL. In From the Early 20th Century Until 1981. Nicosia: AKEL Central Committee (Unpublished).Google Scholar
  3. Axt, H. (2008). Trade Unions in Cyprus: A Blank Spot On the Map. Fachbereich Gesellschaftswissenschaften Institut für Politikwissenschaft (Department of Social Sciences, Institute of Political Science). Duisburg: Universitat Duisburg Essen.Google Scholar
  4. Baldwin, S. (1910). Old Age Pension Schemes: A Criticism and a Program. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 24(4), 713–742.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1883493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barry, E. (1988). Unemployment in Interwar Britain (Working Paper Series). Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, UC Berkeley [Online]. Available at: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/5848x6z8;jsessionid=E5D21F0FE80743D73DEBF18AFF9B35FC#page-2. Accessed 5 Aug 2011.
  6. Crafts, N. (1989). Long-Term Unemployment and the Wage Equation in Britain, 1925–1939. Economica, 56(222), 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eckert, A. (2004). Regulating the Social: Social Security, Social Welfare and the State in late Colonial Tanzania. Journal of African History, 45, 467–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Esping-Andersen, G., Friedland, G., & Wright, E. (1976). Modes of Class Struggle and the Capitalist State. Kapittalistate, 4/5, 186–220.Google Scholar
  9. Ferguson, N. (2002a). Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  10. Ferguson, N. (2002b). Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  11. Geary, D. (1989). Labour and Socialist Movements in Europe Before 1914. Oxford: Berg Publisher.Google Scholar
  12. Georghallides, G. (1984). Life in Cyprus in 18th and 19th Century. Nicosia: Georghallides.Google Scholar
  13. Giugni, M., McAdam, D., & Tilly, C. (1999). How Social Movements Matter. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  14. Gottheil, F. (1977). On an Economic Theory of Colonialism. Journal of Economic Issues, 1(11), 83–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gough, I. (1979). The Political Economy of the Welfare State. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Graikos, K. (1991). History of PSE-PEO 1941–1991. Nicosia: PEO.Google Scholar
  17. Gregoriades, G. (1994). History of SEK (1st ed.). Nicosia: SEK.Google Scholar
  18. Ioakimidis, V. (2011). Expanding Imperialism, Exporting Expertise; International Social Work and the Greek Project (1946–1974). International Social Work, 54(4), 505–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jones, C., & Novak, T. (1980). The State and Social Policy. In Capitalism, State Formation and Marxist Theory. ed. by Corrigan, P. London: Quartet.Google Scholar
  20. Kaseke, E. (2004). Social Protection in SADC: Developing an Integrated and Inclusive Framework, a Social Policy Perspective. In M. Olivier & E. Kalula (Eds.), Social Protection in SADC-Developing an Integrated and Inclusive Framework. Johannesburg: CICLASS, RAU & IDLL, UCT.Google Scholar
  21. Katsiaounis, R. (1996). Labour, Society and Politics in Cyprus During the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century. Nicosia: Cyprus Research Centre.Google Scholar
  22. Korpi, W. (1983). The Democratic Class Struggle. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  23. Larson, S., & Nissen, B. (Eds.). (1987). Theories of the Labour Movement. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Lefkis, Y. (1984). The Roots. Limassol: n.p.Google Scholar
  25. Lymbourides, A. (1985a). The Labour Movement in Cyprus in Its First Step. Nicosia: Lymbourides.Google Scholar
  26. Lymbourides, A. (1985b). Studies for British Occupation in Cyprus. Nicosia: Lymbourides.Google Scholar
  27. Mcllroy, J. (1995). Trade Unions in Britain Today. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Michaelides, M. (2010). The Turkish Cypriot Working Class and the Cyprus Labour Movement, 1920–1963. In E. Solomou & H. Faustmann (Eds.), Colonial Cyprus 1878–1960 (pp. 111–135). Nicosia: University of Nicosia.Google Scholar
  29. Neocleous, G., & Ioakimidis, V. (2012). Social Conditions and the Labour Movement in Cyprus. In N. Peristianis, K. Phellas, & G. Amitsis (Eds.), The Social Portrait of Cyprus (pp. 45–68). Nicosia: University of Nicosia Press.Google Scholar
  30. Papadopoulos, T., & Roumpakis, A. (2013). Familistic Welfare Capitalism in Crisis: Social Reproduction and Anti-Social Policy in Greece. Journal of International and Comparative Social Policy, 29(3), 204–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Papageorgiou, S. (1996). The First Period of the British Colonial Era in Cyprus [1878–1914]. Athens: Papazisie.Google Scholar
  32. Paradis, L. (2006). Change of Masters’: The Sudan Government British Pensioners’ Association and the Negotiation of Post-Colonial Identities. Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, 7(2).  https://doi.org/10.1353/cch.2006.0046.
  33. Peristianis, N. (Ed.). (2004). Fifis Ioannou, the Left and the Cyprus Problem. Nicosia: IMME – Intercollege.Google Scholar
  34. Peristianis, N. (2008). Between Nation and State. Nation, Nationalism, State, and National Identity in Cyprus. PhD, Middlesex University (Unpublished).Google Scholar
  35. Seekings, J. (2006). Pa’S Pension: The Origins of Non-Contributory Old-Age Pensions in Late Colonial Barbados (CSSR Working Paper No. 164). Centre for Social Science Research. [Online]. Available at: http://www.cssr.uct.ac.za/publications/working-paper/2006/pa-s-pension-origins-non-contributory-old-age. Accessed 12 June 2013.
  36. Tarrow, S. (1994). Power in Movement: Collective Action, Social Movements and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Tarrow, S. (1996). Making Social Science Work Across Space and Time: A Critical Reflection on Robert Putnam’s Making Democracy. American Political Science Review, 90(2), 389–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tarrow, S. (2011). Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tilly, C. (2004). Social Movements, 1768–2004. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
  40. Trimikliniotis, N. (2000). The Role of State Processes in the Production and Resolution of “Ethnic” and “National” Conflict: The Case of Cyprus. PhD, University of Greenwich (Unpublished).Google Scholar
  41. Yiallouros, P. (2007). The Evolution of the Social Insurance Scheme. Nicosia: Social Insurance Services.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory Neocleous
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Social Sciences/Social WorkUniversity of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus

Personalised recommendations