Exploring China’s Approach to Implementing ‘Eco-Compensation’ Schemes—The Lake Tai Watershed as a Case Study
China is experimenting with various approaches to ensure the country’s environmentally and socially sustainable development. Eco-compensation is one of the most influential initiatives. It aims to provide financial and economic incentives for environment management. This chapter examines China’s approach to eco-compensation through experience in the Lake Tai watershed. Four typologies of eco-compensation schemes are identified and analysed, primarily through a legal lens. The author concludes that the main financial source for compensation is governmental payment and the form of compensation is limited to cash payments at current stage.
KeywordsChina Eco-compensation Lake Tai
- ADB. (2014). Developing a Framework for Wetland Eco-Compensation Mechanisms in Jiangsu–Yancheng Coastal Wetlands. Retrieved from http://www.povertyenvironment.net/sites/default/files/pep-files/Final%20Report%20-%20PRC%20-%20Jiangsu%20Yancheng%20Wetlands_0.pdf.
- Bennett, M. (2009). Markets for Ecoystem Services in China: An Exploration of China’s “Eco-Compensation” and Other Market-Based Environmental Policies. A Report from Phase I Work on an Inventory of Initiatives for Payments and Markets for Ecosystem Services in China, 86.Google Scholar
- Jiangsu Provincial General Office. (2013). Implementation Measures of Jiangsu Provincial Regional Eco-Compensation for Water Environment (Trial), 195 C.F.R. http://hbj.wuxi.gov.cn/doc/2014/01/21/387403.shtml.
- Kraemer, R. A. (2004). The Role of Tradable Permits in Water Pollution Control, 11.Google Scholar
- Li, L. (2010). The Official Opening of Emission Trading Market in Tai Like Basin (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Li, W., & Imura, H. (2007). Eco-Compensation Mechanisms and Policies in China. Beijing: Science Press.Google Scholar
- Liang, G. (2012). Long Struggle for a Cleaner Lake Tai. China Dialogue. Retrieved from https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/4767-Long-struggle-for-a-cleaner-Lake-Tai-.
- Luo, X. (2011). Ecological Compensation Mechanism in Taihu Lake Basin: Based on Theory and Experience of Watershed Ecological Compensation In and Out of China, 82–89 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- UNECE. (2007). Recommendations on Payments for Ecosystem Services in Integrated Water Resources Management, 51.Google Scholar
- van Rijswick, H. F., Edelenbos, J., Hellegers, P., Kok, M., & Kuks, S. (2014). Ten Building Blocks for Sustainable Water Governance: An Integrated Method to Assess the Governance of Water. Water International, 39(5). https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060.2014.951828.
- Wang, J. (2017, June). Water Quality and Water Ecology Has Been Improved in Tai Lake After Ten Years’ Treatment. China Daily.Google Scholar
- Wang, Y. R. (2018). Characterising Water Eco-Compensation Mechanisms in China. Sun Yat-sen University.Google Scholar
- Wu, Z. (2014). Jiangsu Province Promotes a Bi-directional Eco-Compensation in Watersheds. Retrieved from https://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_1269420.
- Zhang, Q., Bennett, M. T., Kannan, K., & Jin, L. (2010). Payments for Ecological Services and Eco-Compensation: Practices and Innovations in the People’s Republic of China. Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar