Advertisement

Space Cooling of nZEB

  • Sašo MedvedEmail author
  • Suzana Domjan
  • Ciril Arkar
Chapter
Part of the Springer Tracts in Civil Engineering book series (SPRTRCIENG)

Abstract

The International Energy Agency (IEA) predicts that the final energy demand for cooling worldwide will increase from current 4 to 9 EJ per year by the year 2050. There are several reasons for increased energy demand. The contemporary architecture trend of “all-glass” architecture is a significant reason for the increased energy need for cooling of the buildings. An increase number of domestic appliances cause increased use of electricity and, therefore internal heat gains that must be removed by cooling systems. The EU population is getting older, and it is estimated that in the year 2030 almost one third of population in EU will be older that 65 years; elderly people are more vulnerable to heat stress. As a consequence, more cooling systems will be installed. During the last century, cities become larger and built with low albedo materials (low reflection of shortwave solar irradiation) with limited green areas. As a result, urban and street canyon heat islands are more intense. It has been calculated that in a mid-size city, an urban island could cause increase the need for cold for 10 kWh/m2 of building area per year. Climate change is another reason for the increased energy demand for the cooling of buildings. The United States Environment Protection Agency (EPA) predicts that in hot climate regions the demand for energy for cooling will increase due to global warming by 5–20%. Note An urban heat island is defined by the difference in the maximal daily outdoor air temperature in the built environment and surrounding countryside; a street canyon heat island is defined by the difference in maximal daily outdoor air temperature in the particular street canyon and in the city. In cities with more than one million inhabitants, the intensity of the urban heat island could be as high as 6–10 °C; the intensity of the street canyon heat island in tall streets without trees could be 1–3 °C in non-windy conditions.

References

  1. Arkar C, Domjan S, Medved S (2018) Raziskava toplotnih in hidroloških lastnosti ozelenjenih streh URBANSCAPE (Survey of thermal and hydrological properties of URBANSCAPE green roofs). University of Ljubljana, faculty of Mechanical EngineeringGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhatia A (2012) HVAC variable refrigerant flow systems. Continuing Education and Development Inc, USAGoogle Scholar
  3. Davies MG (2004) Building heat transfer. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kabele K et al (2012) Heating and cooling. Educational package, IDES-EDU master and post graduate education and training in multi-disciplinary teams implementing EPBD and beyond, IEE/09/631/Si12.558225Google Scholar
  5. Kosi FF et al (2015) Cold thermal energy storage. In: Handbook of research on advances and applications in refrigeration systems and technologies. Engineering science referenceGoogle Scholar
  6. Lokurlu A (2010) Integration of renewable energy systems in Mediterranean countries based on SOLITEM parabolic trough collectors. SOLITEM Group Aachen, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  7. Medved S (2014) Gradbena fizika II (Building physics II. Faculty of Architecture, University of Ljubljana, LjubljanaGoogle Scholar
  8. Medved S et al (2004) Termo enciklopedija 2 = Termo encyclopedia 2. Termo, Škofja LokaGoogle Scholar
  9. Moran JM, Shapiro NH (1998) Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics. Wiley, UKGoogle Scholar
  10. Oprešnik M (1987) Termodinamika (Thermodynamics). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, LjubljanaGoogle Scholar
  11. Santamouris M (ed) (2006) Environmental design of urban buildings. EarthscanGoogle Scholar
  12. SOLAIR (2007) Increasing the market implementation of solar air-conditioning systems for small and medium applications in residential and commerce buildings, EISAS/EIE/06/034/2006Google Scholar
  13. Synnefa A, Santamouris V, Apostolakis K (2007) On the development, optical properties and thermal performance of cool coloured coatings for the urban environment. Sol Energy 81(4):488–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Vidrih B, Medved S (2013) Multiparametric model of urban park cooling island. Urban Forest Urban Green 12(2):220–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations