Stress, Vulnerability, and Resilience

  • Kyung Bong Koh


Causes of stress are classified into psychosocial factors and environmental (bioecological) factors. Vulnerability refers to poorly adapting to stressors and showing inappropriate responses that can become persistent states of stress. In contrast, resilience is linked to being able to perceive stressful events in less threatening ways, promoting adaptive coping strategies. Differences in individual vulnerability and resilience occur across sex, age, and culture. The underlying mechanisms of vulnerability and resilience are known to depend on a combination of genetic and nongenetic factors. Psychosocial factors, behavioral factors, neuroendocrine stress responses, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, and neural circuitry are likely to be involved in vulnerability and resilience to stress. In particular, the functional capacity of the brain structures involved in the integrated circuits that mediate mood and emotion determines stress resilience.


Stress Vulnerability Psychosocial factors Behavioral factors Neuroendocrine stress responses Genetic mechanisms Epigenetic mechanisms Neural circuitry 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyung Bong Koh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulKorea

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