Advertisement

Severe Glenoid Erosion (B2, B3, C, E2, E3) Treated with RSA

  • Francesco Ascione
  • Howard D. RoutmanEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is gradually being considered a reasonable approach to more severe patterns of glenoid erosion. The adoption of RSA has been supported by both clinical and finite element analysis reports that demonstrate the challenges encountered by surgeons when considering arthroplasty in this setting. The Favard and modified Walch classifications using computed tomography are the most common methods of analyzing these deformities in anticipation of glenoid arthroplasty. Surgical correction of superior glenoid inclination, retroversion, and posterior humeral head subluxation can be achieved through various techniques in both TSA and RSA. High-side eccentric reaming, structural or cancellous bone grafting, and augmented glenoid components (and relative combinations of them) are described, with both advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Understanding the full spectrum of treatment options available can allow for the best decision-making for each individual patients deformity, when managing these patterns of glenoid bone loss with RSA.

Keywords

Glenoid bone loss Retroversion Inclination Posterior subluxation Reverse shoulder arthroplasty Total shoulder arthroplasty Complications Bone graft Augmented baseplates Surgical treatment 

References

  1. 1.
    Allred JJ, Flores-Hernandez C, Hoenecke HR Jr, D’Lima DD. Posterior augmented glenoid implants require less bone removal and generate lower stresses: a finite element analysis. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2016;25:823–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2015.10.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ascione F, Bugelli G, Domos P, Neyton L, Godeneche A, Bercik MJ, Walch G. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty with a new convertible short stem: preliminary 2- to 4-year follow-up results. J Shoulder Elb Arthropl. 2017;  https://doi.org/10.1177/2471549217746272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bateman E, Donald S. Reconstruction of massive uncontained glenoid defects using a combined autograft-allograft construct with reverse shoulder arthroplasty: preliminary results. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2012;21:925–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2011.07.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bercik MJ, Kruse K 2nd, Yalizis M, Gauci MO, Chaoui J, Walch G. A modification to the Walch classification of the glenoid in primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis using three-dimensional imaging. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2016;25:1601–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2016.03.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boileau P, Avidor C, Krishnan SG, Walch G, Kempf JF, Molé D. Cemented polyethylene versus uncemented metal-backed glenoid components in total shoulder arthroplasty: a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2002;11:351–9.  https://doi.org/10.1067/mse.2002.125807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boileau P, Moineau G, Roussanne Y, O’Shea K. Bony increased-offset reversed shoulder arthroplasty: minimizing scapular impingement while maximizing glenoid fixation. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469:2558–67.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-011-1775-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boileau P, Morin-Salvo N, Gauci MO, Seeto BL, Chalmers PN, Holzer N, et al. Angled BIO-RSA (bony-increased offset-reverse shoulder arthroplasty): a solution for the management of glenoid bone loss and erosion. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2017;26(12):2133–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2017.05.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boone DW. Complications of iliac crest graft and bone grafting alternatives in foot and ankle surgery. Foot Ankle Clin. 2003;8:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1083-7515(02)00128-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Budge MD, Lewis GS, Schaefer E, Coquia S, Flemming DJ, Armstrong AD. Comparison of standard two-dimensional and three-dimensional corrected glenoid version measurements. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2011;20:577–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2010.11.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cheung EV, Sperling JW, Cofield RH. Reimplantation of a glenoid component following component removal and allogenic bone-grafting. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:1777–83.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.F.00711.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clavert P, Millett PJ, Warner JJ. Glenoid resurfacing: what are the limits to asymmetric reaming for posterior erosion? J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2007;16:843–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2007.03.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cofield RH, Edgerton BC. Total shoulder arthroplasty: complications and revision surgery. Instr Course Lect. 1990;39:449–62.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Denard PJ, Walch G. Current concepts in the surgical management of primary glenohumeral arthritis with a biconcave glenoid. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2013;22:1589–98.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2013.06.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Deshmukh AV, Koris M, Zurakowski D, Thornhill TS. Total shoulder arthroplasty: long-term survivorship, functional outcome, and quality of life. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2005;14:471–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2005.02.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Favard L, Lautmann S, Sirveaux F, Oudet D, Kerjean Y, Huguet D. Hemiarthroplasty versus reverse arthroplasty in the treatment of osteoarthritis with massive rotator cuff tear. In: Walch G, Boileau P, Molé D, editors. 2000 shoulder prostheses: two to ten year follow-up. Montpellier: Sauramps Médical; 2001. p. 261–8.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fox TJ, Cil A, Sperling JW, Sanchez-Sotelo J, Schleck CD, Cofield RH. Survival of the glenoid component in shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2009;18:859–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2008.11.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Frankle MA, Teramoto A, Luo ZP, Levy JC, Pupello D. Glenoid morphology in reverse shoulder arthroplasty: classification and surgical implications. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2009;18:874–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2009.02.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Franta AK, Lenters TR, Mounce D, Neradilek B, Matsen FA 3rd. The complex characteristics of 282 unsatisfactory shoulder arthroplasties. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2007;16:555–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2006.11.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ganapathi A, McCarron JA, Chen X, Iannotti JP. Predicting normal glenoid version from the pathologic scapula: a comparison of 4 methods in 2- and 3-dimensional models. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2011;20:234–44.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2010.05.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gerber C, Costouros JG, Sukthankar A, Fucentese SF. Static posterior humeral head subluxation and total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2009;18:505–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2009.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gillespie R, Lyons R, Lazarus M. Eccentric reaming in total shoulder arthroplasty: a cadaveric study. Orthopedics. 2009;31:21.  https://doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20090101-07.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gilot GJ. Addressing glenoid erosion in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013). 2013;71(Suppl 2):S51–3.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gutiérrez S, Greiwe RM, Frankle MA, Siegal S, Lee WE 3rd. Biomechanical comparison of component position and hardware failure in the reverse shoulder prosthesis. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2007;16(3 Suppl):S9–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2005.11.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gutiérrez S, Walker M, Willis M, Pupello DR, Frankle MA. Effects of tilt and glenosphere eccentricity on baseplate/bone interface forces in a computational model, validated by a mechanical model, of reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2011;20:732–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2010.10.035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Habermeyer P, Magosch P, Lichtenberg S. Recentering the humeral head for glenoid deficiency in total shoulder arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;457:124–32.  https://doi.org/10.1097/BLO.0b013e31802ff03c.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Harmsen S, Casagrande D, Norris T. “Shaped” humeral head autograft reverse shoulder arthroplasty: treatment for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis with significant posterior glenoid bone loss (B2, B3, and C type). Orthopade. 2017;46(12):1045–54.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00132-017-3497-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hettrich CM, Permeswaran VN, Goetz JE, Anderson DD. Mechanical tradeoffs associated with glenosphere lateralization in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2015;24:1774–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2015.06.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hill JM, Norris TR. Long-term results of total shoulder arthroplasty following bone-grafting of the glenoid. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001;83:877–83.  https://doi.org/10.2106/00004623-200106000-00009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ho JC, Sabesan VJ, Iannotti JP. Glenoid component retroversion is associated with osteolysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95:e82.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.L.00336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hsu JE, Ricchetti ET, Huffman GR, Iannotti JP, Glaser DL. Addressing glenoid bone deficiency and asymmetric posterior erosion in shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2013;22:1298–308.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2013.04.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Iannotti JP, Frangiamore SJ. Fate of large structural allograft for treatment of severe uncontained glenoid bone deficiency. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2012;21:765–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2011.08.069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Iannotti JP, Lappin KE, Klotz CL, Reber EW, Swope SW. Liftoff resistance of augmented glenoid components during cyclic fatigue loading in the posterior-superior direction. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2013;22:1530–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2013.01.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Iannotti JP, Norris TR. Influence of preoperative factors on outcome of shoulder arthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85:251–8.  https://doi.org/10.2106/00004623-200302000-00011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Iannotti JP, Weiner S, Rodriguez E, Subhas N, Patterson TE, Jun BJ, et al. Three-dimensional imaging and templating improve glenoid implant positioning. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015;97:651–8.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.N.00493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jones RB, Wright TW, Roche CP. Bone grafting the glenoid versus use of augmented glenoid baseplates with reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013). 2015;73(Suppl 1):S129–35.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jones RB, Wright TW, Zuckerman JD. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty with structural bone grafting of large glenoid defects. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2016;25:1425–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2016.01.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kelly JD 2nd, Zhao JX, Hobgood ER, Norris TR. Clinical results of revision shoulder arthroplasty using the reverse prosthesis. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2012;21:1516–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2011.11.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kirane YM, Lewis GS, Sharkey NA, Armstrong AD. Mechanical characteristics of a novel posterior-step prosthesis for biconcave glenoid defects. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2012;21:105–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2010.12.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Klein SM, Dunning P, Mulieri P, Pupello D, Downes K, Frankle MA. Effects of acquired glenoid bone defects on surgical technique and clinical outcomes in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92:1144–54.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.I.00778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kwon YW, Powell KA, Yum JK, Brems JJ, Iannotti JP. Use of three-dimensional computed tomography for the analysis of the glenoid anatomy. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2005;14:85–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2004.04.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Laver L, Garrigues GE. Avoiding superior tilt in reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a review of the literature and technical recommendations. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2014;23:1582–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2014.06.029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lévigne C, Boileau P, Favard L, Garaud P, Molé D, Sirveaux F, et al. Scapular notching in reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2008;17:925–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2008.02.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lévigne C, Franceschi JP. Rheumatoid arthritis of the shoulder: radiographic presentation and results of arthroplasty. In: Walch G, Boileau P, editors. Shoulder arthroplasty. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1999. p. 221–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Levine WN, Djurasovic M, Glasson JM, Pollock RG, Flatow EL, Bigliani LU. Hemiarthroplasty for glenohumeral osteoarthritis: results correlated to degree of glenoid wear. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 1997;6:449–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1058-2746(97)70052-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Li X, Knutson Z, Choi D, Lobatto D, Lipman J, Craig EV, et al. Effects of glenosphere positioning on impingement-free internal and external rotation after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2013;22:807–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2012.07.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Matsen FA 3rd, Clinton J, Lynch J, Bertelsen A, Richardson ML. Glenoid component failure in total shoulder arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:885–96.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.G.01263.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Matsen FA 3rd, Warme WJ, Jackins SE. Can the ream and run procedure improve glenohumeral relationships and function for shoulders with the arthritic triad? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015;473:2088–96.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-014-4095-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Melis B, Bonnevialle N, Neyton L, Lévigne C, Favard L, Walch G, et al. Glenoid loosening and failure in anatomical total shoulder arthroplasty: is revision with a reverse shoulder arthroplasty a reliable option? J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2012;21:342–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2011.05.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mizuno N, Denard PJ, Raiss P, Walch G. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis in patients with a biconcave glenoid. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95:1297–304.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.L.00820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Neer CS 2nd, Craig EV, Fukuda H. Cuff-tear arthropathy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983;65:1232–44.  https://doi.org/10.2106/00004623-198365090-00003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Neyton L, Boileau P, Nové-Josserand L, Edwards TB, Walch G. Glenoid bone grafting with reverse design prosthesis. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2007;16(3 Suppl):S71–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2006.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Norris TR, Kelly JD 2nd, Humphrey CS. Management of glenoid bone defects in revision shoulder arthroplasty: a new application of the reverse total shoulder prosthesis. Tech Shoulder Elb Surg. 2007;8:37–46.  https://doi.org/10.1097/BTE.0b013e318030d3b7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nowak DD, Bahu MJ, Gardner TR, Dyrszka MD, Levine WN, Bigliani LU, et al. Simulation of surgical glenoid resurfacing using three-dimensional computed tomography of the arthritic glenohumeral joint: the amount of glenoid retroversion that can be corrected. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2009;18:680–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2009.03.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Phipatanakul WP, Norris TR. Treatment of glenoid loosening and bone loss due to osteolysis with glenoid bone grafting. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2006;15:84–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2005.06.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rice RS, Sperling JW, Miletti J, Schleck C, Cofield RH. Augmented glenoid component for bone deficiency in shoulder arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:579–83.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-007-0104-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Roche CP, Stroud NJ, Martin BL, Steiler CA, Flurin PH, Wright TW, et al. Achieving fixation in glenoids with superior wear using reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2013;22:1695–701.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2013.03.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Romano AM, Oliva F, Nastrucci G, Casillo P, Di Giunta A, Susanna M, et al. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty patient personalized rehabilitation protocol: preliminary results according to prognostic groups. Muscle Ligaments Tendons J. 2017;7:263–70.  https://doi.org/10.11138/mltj/2017.7.2.263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sabesan V, Callanan M, Sharma V, Iannotti JP. Correction of acquired glenoid bone loss in osteoarthritis with a standard versus an augmented glenoid component. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2014;23:964–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2013.09.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sears BW, Johnston PS, Ramsey ML, Williams GR. Glenoid bone loss in primary total shoulder arthroplasty: evaluation and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2012;20(9):604–13.  https://doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-20-09-604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Scalise JJ, Bryan J, Polster J, Brems JJ, Iannotti JP. Quantitative analysis of glenoid bone loss in osteoarthritis using three-dimensional computed tomography scans. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2008;17:328–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2007.07.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Shapiro TA, McGarry MH, Gupta R, Lee YS, Lee TQ. Biomechanical effects of glenoid retroversion in total shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2007;16(3 Suppl):S90–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2006.07.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Singh JA, Sperling JW, Cofield RH. Revision surgery following total shoulder arthroplasty: analysis of 2588 shoulders over three decades (1976 to 2008). J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2011;93:1513–7.  https://doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.93B11.26938.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Stephens SP, Paisley KC, Jeng J, Dutta AK, Wirth MA. Shoulder arthroplasty in the presence of posterior glenoid bone loss. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015;97(3):251–9.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.N.00566.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Valenti P, Sauzières P, Katz D, Kalouche I, Kilinc AS. Do less medialized reverse shoulder prostheses increase motion and reduce notching? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469:2550–7.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-011-1844-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Visotsky JL, Basamania C, Seebauer L, Rockwood CA, Jensen KL. Cuff tear arthropathy: pathogenesis, classification, and algorithm for treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86(Suppl 2):35–40.  https://doi.org/10.2106/00004623-200412002-00007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Walch G, Badet R, Boulahia A, Khoury A. Morphologic study of the glenoid in primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis. J Arthroplast. 1999;14:756–60.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-5403(99)90232-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Walch G, Moraga C, Young A, Castellanos-Rosas J. Results of anatomic nonconstrained prosthesis in primary osteoarthritis with biconcave glenoid. J Shoulder Elb Surg. 2012;21:1526–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2011.11.030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Walch G, Young AA, Boileau P, Loew M, Gazielly D, Molé D. Patterns of loosening of polyethylene keeled glenoid components after shoulder arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis: results of a multicenter study with more than five years of follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:145–50.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.J.00699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wright TW, Roche CP, Wright L, Flurin PH, Crosby LA, Zuckerman JD. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty augments for glenoid wear: comparison of posterior augments to superior augments. Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013). 2015;73(Suppl 1):124–8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Orthopedic DepartmentCampolongo HospitalSalernoItaly
  2. 2.Orthopedic and Traumatolgy DivisionMadonna del Buon Consiglio Fatebenefratelli HospitalNaplesItaly
  3. 3.The Palm Beach Shoulder Service at Atlantis OrthopaedicsPalm Beach GardensUSA

Personalised recommendations