Advertisement

Causes of Radicalisation: Theological Arguments as the Ultimate Trigger

  • Zuleyha Keskin
  • Fatih Tuncer
Chapter
Part of the Middle East Today book series (MIET)

Abstract

Violent extremism is not a new or simple phenomenon. It brings into play a wide range of factors and motivators that contribute to the radicalisation of an individual. While there are social, political, emotional and psychological causes, Muslim radicals have a further underlying driving force for their actions: religious justification for their violent actions. Thus, it becomes apparent that the ultimate trigger for violent extremism is a distorted theological narrative. After all, individuals or groups would not undertake such violent actions unless they believed it to be in line with their religion. Such distorted theological arguments have an extremely destructive effect, since religious texts are cited to support atrocities committed in the name of religion. While addressing the social, political, emotional and psychological causes of radicalism will have a positive effect, they fall short of fully addressing radicalism unless a theological counter-narrative is provided.

References

  1. Abdel Haleem, Muhammad. 2001. Understanding the Qur’an: Themes and Style. New York: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  2. Abou El Fadl, Khaled. 2001. Speaking in God’s Name: Islamic Law, Authority and Women. Oxford: Oneworld.Google Scholar
  3. ———. 2005. The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from Extremists. New York: HarperSanFrancisco.Google Scholar
  4. Afsaruddin, Asma. 2013. Striving in the Path of God: Jihad and Martyrdom in Islamic Thought. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. al-Awlaki, Anwar. 2010. The Rule on Dispossessing the Disbelievers Wealth in Dar al-Harb. Inspire Magazine 4 (Winter): 54–60. https://archive.org/stream/InspireMagazine4#page/n0/mode/2up. Accessed 4 June 2018.Google Scholar
  6. al-Saud, Abdullah bin Khaled. 2017. The Spiritual Teacher and His Truants: The Influence and Relevance of Abu Mohammad al-Maqdisi. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2017.1338057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Antúnez, J. Carlos, and Ioannis Tellidis. 2013. The Power of Words: The Deficient Terminology Surrounding Islam-related Terrorism. Critical Studies on Terrorism 6 (1): 118–139.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17539153.2013.765703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashraf, Shahid. 2004. Encyclopedia of Holy Prophet and Companions. Delhi: Anmol Publications.Google Scholar
  9. Barclay, Jack. 2011. The Extremist Reaction to the UK’s Prevent Strategy. Current Trends in Islamic Ideology 12 (1): 73–91.Google Scholar
  10. Bell, Stewart. 2014. ‘Regular Canadian’ Killed in Syria Conflict Featured in Slick, New ISIS Propaganda Video. National Post, July 11. http://nationalpost.com/news/canada/regular-canadian-killed-in-syria-conflict-featured-in-slick-new-isis-propaganda-video. Accessed 20 Apr 2018.
  11. Braddock, Kurt, and John Horgan. 2016. Towards a Guide for Constructing and Disseminating Counternarratives to Reduce Support for Terrorism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 39 (5): 381–404.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2015.1116277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cottee, Simon. 2017. What ISIS Really Wants’ Revisited: Religion Matters in Jihadist Violence, but How? Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 40 (6): 439–454.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2016.1221258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. English Oxford Living Dictionaries. n.d. s.v. “Jihad.” https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/jihad. Accessed 18 Mar 2018.
  14. Esposito, John L. 2015. Islam and Political Violence. Religions 6 (3): 1067–1081.  https://doi.org/10.3390/rel6031067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gøtzsche-Astrup, Oluf. 2018. The Time for Causal Designs: Review and Evaluation of Empirical Support for Mechanisms of Political Radicalization. Aggression and Violent Behavior 39 (1): 90–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gülen, Fethullah. 2015. Muslims Must Combat the Extremist Cancer. The Wall Street Journal, August 27. https://www.wsj.com/articles/muslims-must-combat-the-extremist-cancer-1440718377. Accessed 25 Mar 2018.
  17. Haqiqah Magazine. n.d. http://www.haqiqah.org/haqiqah-magazines/. Accessed 25 May 2018.
  18. Hathout, Maher. 2002. Jihad vs. Terrorism. Los Angeles: Multimedia Vera International.Google Scholar
  19. Hegghammer, Thomas. 2009. Jihadi-Salafis or Revolutionaries? On Religion and Politics in the Study of Militant Islamism. In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement, ed. Roel Meijer, 244–266. London/New York: Hurst.Google Scholar
  20. Ingram, Haroro J. 2016. ISIS: Assessing Rumiyah. Australian Outlook, September 12. Australian Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  21. Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. 2014–2016. Dabiq, 1–15. https://jihadology.net/category/dabiq-magazine/. Accessed 22 May 2018.
  22. Jacobson, Michael. 2009. Terrorist Drop-Outs: One Way of Promoting a Counter-Narrative. Perspectives on Terrorism 3 (2): 12–17.Google Scholar
  23. Khalil, Mohammad Hassan. 2018. Jihad, Radicalism, and the New Atheism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Kibble, David G. 2016. Dabiq, the Islamic State’s Magazine: A Critical Analysis. Middle East Policy XXIII (3): 133–143.Google Scholar
  25. Knapp, Michael G. 2003. The Practice and Concept of Jihad in Islam. Parameters 33 (1): 82–94.Google Scholar
  26. Merriam-Webster. 2018. s.v. “Jihad.” https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/jihad. Accessed 18 Mar 2018.
  27. Minhaj-ul-Quran. 2015. Dr. Tahir-ul-Qadri Launches Islamic Curriculum on Peace and Counter-Terrorism in UK. https://www.minhaj.org/english/tid/33354/Dr-Tahir-ul-Qadri-launches-anti-ISIS-Islamic-curriculum-peace-counter-terrorism-de-radicalisation-ideology-Jihad-elimination-extremism-UK.html. Accessed 4 June 2018.
  28. Open Letter to Dr. Ibrahim Awwad Al-Badri, Alias ‘Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi and to the Fighters and Followers of the Self-Declared ‘Islamic State’. 2014. September 19. http://lettertobaghdadi.com/pdf/Booklet-English.pdf. Accessed 25 Mar 2018.
  29. Orton, Kyle. 2014. The Islamic State Creates Foreign ‘Provinces.’ The Syrian Intifada weblog, December 6. https://kyleorton1991.wordpress.com/2014/12/06/the-islamic-state-creates-foreign-provinces/#more-4633. Accessed 25 Mar 2018.
  30. Parvin, Manoucher, and Maurie Sommer. 1980. Dar al-Islam: The Evolution of Muslim Territoriality and Its Implications for Conflict Resolution in the Middle East. International Journal of Middle East Studies 11 (1): 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Quilliam. 2010. Anti-terrorism Fatwa Launch in London. Quilliam, March 1. https://www.quilliaminternational.com/anti-terrorism-fatwa-launch-in-london-tomorrow/. Accessed 25 Mar 2018.
  32. Ramadan, Tariq. 2005. Western Muslims and the Future of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Recruited by Al-Qaeda: Foreign Fighters in a Damascus Jail Tell Their Stories. 2013. RT, September 11. https://www.rt.com/news/syria-foreign-fighters-mercenaries-706/
  34. Sing, Mafred. 2016. Dis/connecting Islam and Terror: The ‘Open Letter to Al-Baghdadi’ and the Pitfalls of Condemning ISIS on Islamic Grounds. Journal of Religious and Political Practice 2 (3): 296–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sonn, Tamara, and Adam Farrar. 2010. Kharijites: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Stern, Jessica, and J.M. Berger. 2015. ISIS and the Foreign-Fighter Phenomenon. The Atlantic, March 8. http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2015/03/isis-and-the-foreign-fighter-problem/387166/. Accessed 20 Apr 2018.
  37. Tabari, Abu Ja’far Muhammad bin Jarir. 1982. Tahdhib al-Athar Musnad ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib, ed. Mahmud Muhammad Shakir. Cairo: Matba‘a al-Madani.Google Scholar
  38. Tahir-ul-Qadri, Muḥammad. 2011. Fatwa on Terrorism and Suicide Bombings. Lahore: Minhaj-ul-Quran International.Google Scholar
  39. Tasgin, Serkan, and Taner Cam. 2016. Reasons for Terrorism in the Middle East. In Eradicating Terrorism from the Middle East. Policy and Administrative Approaches, ed. Alexander R. Dawoody, 71–89. Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wood, Graeme. 2015. What ISIS Really Wants. The Atlantic, March. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/03/what-isis-really-wants/384980/. Accessed 25 Mar.
  41. Wright, Lawrence. 2008. The Rebellion Within. An Al Qaida Mastermind Questions Terrorism. The New Yorker, June 2. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2008/06/02/the-rebellion-within?currentPage=all. Accessed 25 Mar.
  42. Yaqoubi, Muhammad. 2016. Refuting ISIS: Destroying Its Religious Foundations and Proving It Has Strayed from Islam and that Fighting It Is an Obligation. Virginia: Sacred Knowledge.Google Scholar
  43. Yusuf, Hamza. 2016. The Plague Within. Sandala, July 5. https://sandala.org/the-plague-within/. Accessed 18 Mar 2018.
  44. Zenn, Jacob, and Zacharias Pieri. 2017. How Much Takfir Is Too Much Takfir? The Evolution of Boko Haram’s Factionalization. Journal for Deradicalization 11 (3): 281–308.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Charles Sturt UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Australian Catholic UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations