Advertisement

Pro-active Religious Rehabilitation for the Prevention of Radicalism and Violent Extremism

  • Cemil Alkan
Chapter
Part of the Middle East Today book series (MIET)

Abstract

Social ruptures, socio-political injustices, double standards and grievances lay the foundation of alienation and frustration. While radical preachers tacitly use unfortunate circumstances to recruit vulnerable Muslims, mainstream Muslim preachers use religion to tame the opposed one’s emotional eruptions and violent reactions. One practical example of such religious rehabilitation can be followed in the sermons of M. Fethullah Gülen, whose followers have been politically oppressed, especially after the coup attempt in Turkey on 15 July 2017. Looking at Gülen’s sermons delivered in the first six weeks of the controversial coup attempt, this chapter analyses the overarching religious themes and discourse preventing Gülen’s followers from emotional eruptions and violent reactions. Examining the influence of religious rehabilitation from a real-life scenario, this chapter proposes a pro-active strategy that continuously and unconditionally produces positive thinking and action, and thereby leaves not much room for radicalism and no need for its refutation.

References

  1. Abou El Fadl, Khaled. 2005. The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from Extremists. New York: HarperSanFrancisco.Google Scholar
  2. ———. 2015. The End of the Arab Spring, the Rise of ISIS and the Future of Political Islam. April 23. https://www.abc.net.au/religion/the-end-of-the-arab-spring-the-rise-of-isis-and-the-future-of-po/10098372
  3. Barkey, Henri. 2017. One Year Later, the Turkish Coup Attempt Remains Shrouded in Mystery. Washington Post, July 14. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/democracy-post/wp/2017/07/14/one-year-later-the-turkish-coup-attempt-remains-shrouded-in-mystery/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.6113271c3cdf
  4. Barton, Greg. 2007. Preaching by Example and Learning for Life: Understanding the Gülen Hizmet in the Global Context of Religious Philanthropy and Civil Religion. In Muslim World in Transition: Contributions of the Gülen Movement, ed. Ihsan Yilmaz et al., 650–662. London: International Refereed Conference Proceedings.Google Scholar
  5. Byman, Daniel. 2011. After the Hope of the Arab Spring, the Chill of an Arab Winter. Washington Post, December 1.Google Scholar
  6. Cagaptay, S. 2017. The New Sultan: Erdogan and the Crisis of Modern Turkey. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd.Google Scholar
  7. Carter, Joseph A., Shiraz Maher, and Peter R. Neumann. 2014. #Greenbirds: Measuring Importance and Influence in Syrian Foreign Fighter Networks. London: The International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence (ICSR).Google Scholar
  8. Cesari, Jocelyne. 2015. Religion and Politics: What Does God Have to Do with It? Religions 6 (4): 1330–1344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Corke, Susan, Andrew Finkel, David J. Kramer, Carla Anne Robbins, and Schenkkan Nate. 2014. Democracy in Crisis: Corruption, Media, and Power in Turkey. Washington, DC: Freedom House.Google Scholar
  10. Droogan, Julian, and Shane Peattie. 2016. Reading Jihad: Mapping the Shifting Themes of Inspire Magazine. Terrorism and Political Violence: 1–34.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2016.1211527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. ———. 2017. Mapping the Thematic Landscape of Dabiq Magazine. Australian Journal of International Affairs 70 (6): 591–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. ———. Forthcoming. Islamophobia in Al-Qa’ida’s and IS’ English-Language Magazines. In Islamophobia and Radicalization: Breeding Violence and Intolerance, ed. John L. Esposito and Derya Iner. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  13. Ebaugh, Helen Rose. 2009. The Gülen Movement: A Sociological Analysis of a Civic Movement Rooted in Moderate Islam. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  14. Esposito, John L., and Ihsan Yilmaz. 2010. Transnational Muslim Faith-Based Peacebuilding: Initiatives of the Gülen Movement. European Journal of Economic and Political Studies 3: 87–102.Google Scholar
  15. Fink, Naureen Chowdhury, and Benjamin Sugg. 2015. A Tale of Two Jihads: Comparing the al-Qaeda and ISIS Narratives. The Global Observatory, February 9. https://theglobalobservatory.org/2015/02/jihad-al-qaeda-isis-counternarrative/
  16. Gause, F. Gregory. 2014. Beyond Sectarianism: The New Middle East Cold War. Brookings Doha Center Analysis Paper 11: 1–27.Google Scholar
  17. Gerges, Fawaz A. 2014. ISIS and the Third Wave of Jihadism. Current History 113 (767): 339–343.Google Scholar
  18. Gülen, M. Fetullah. 2007. Key Concepts in Practice of Sufism. Clifton: Tughra Books.Google Scholar
  19. ———. 2016. “Yangın” [Fire]. Bamteli, September 18. http://herkul.org/bamteli/bamteli-yangin/
  20. Gunter, Michael M. 2016. Erdogan and the Decline of Turkey. Middle East Policy 23 (4): 123–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harris-Hogan, Shandon. 2017. Violent Extremism in Australia: An Overview. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  22. Howard, Philip N., Aiden Duffy, Deen Freelon, Muzammil M. Hussain, Will Mari, and Marwa Maziad. 2011. Opening Closed Regimes: What Was the Role of Social Media During the Arab Spring? Seattle: University of Washington. www.pitpi.org
  23. Human Rights Watch. 2016. Silencing Turkey’s Media: The Government’s Deepening Assault on Critical Journalism. New York: Human Rights Watch.Google Scholar
  24. Ingram, Haroro J. 2017. An Analysis of Inspire and Dabiq: Lessons from AQAP and Islamic State’s Propaganda War. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 40 (5): 357–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keep Talking Greece. 2017. “UPD Children Bodies Washed Ashore of Lesvos Belonged to Turkish Family Fleeing Erdogan Persecution.” Keep Talking Greece, November 22. http://www.keeptalkinggreece.com/2017/11/22/children-washed-ashore-lesvos-turkish-family/
  26. ———. 2018. Teacher and Her Children Drown as They Flee Turkey Purge, 5 Still Missing. Keep Talking Greece, February 14. http://www.keeptalkinggreece.com/2018/02/14/turkey-purge-boat-teacher-children/
  27. Khondker, Habibul Haque. 2011. Role of the New Media in the Arab Spring. Globalizations 8 (5): 675–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kingsley, Patrick. 2017. Mysteries, and a Crackdown, Persist a Year After a Failed Coup in Turkey. New York Times, July 13. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/13/world/europe/turkey-erdogan-failed-coup-mystery.html
  29. Michel, S.J. Thomas. 2005. Sufism and Modernity in the Thought of Fethullah Gülen. The Muslim World 95 (3): 341–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Özdalga, Elisabeth. 2000. Worldly Asceticism in Islamic Casting: Fethullah Gülen’s Inspired Piety and Activism. Journal for Critical Studies of the Middle East 9 (17): 83–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pandya, Sophia, and Nancy Gallagher. 2012. The Gülen Hizmet Movement and Its Transnational Activities: Case Studies of Altruistic Activism in Contemporary Islam. Boca Raton: BrownWalker Press.Google Scholar
  32. Poushter, Jacob. 2015. In Nations with Significant Muslim Populations, Much Disdain for ISIS. Pew Research, November 17. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/11/17/in-nations-with-significant-muslim-populations-much-disdain-for-isis/
  33. Saritoprak, Zeki. 2016. Muslim Perception of Fethullah Gülen and the Hizmet Movement: Accommodating or Hindering Modern Turkey? In Alternative Islamic Discourses and Religious Authority, ed. Susanne Olsson and Carool Kersten. Burlington: Ashgate Press.Google Scholar
  34. Segal, Zindel. 2016. Three Ways Acceptance Helps You Work with Difficult Emotions. Mindful, May 18. https://www.mindful.org/three-ways-acceptance-helps-work-difficult-emotions/
  35. Srivastava, Mehul. 2017. A Year After the Coup Attempt, Turkey Wrestles with the Truth. July 15. https://www.ft.com/content/edc6b1b4-67bc-11e7-8526-7b38dcaef614
  36. Stockholm Center for Freedom. 2017a. In Erdogan’s Long Arm in Europe: The Case of Netherlands, ed. Stockholm Center for Freedom. Stockholm.Google Scholar
  37. ———. 2017b. In Erdogan’s Vile Campaign of Hate Speech Case Study: Targeting of the Gülen Movement, ed. Stockholm Center for Freedom. Stockholm.Google Scholar
  38. Taspinar, Omer. 2014. The End of the Turkish Model. Survival 56 (2): 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tittensor, David. 2014. The House of Service: The Gülen Movement and Islam’s Third Way. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Tufekci, Zeynep. 2014. Social Movements and Governments in the Digital Age: Evaluating a Complex Landscape. Journal of International Affairs 68 (1): 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. TurkeyPurge. 2018. Pro-govt Journalist Says Jailed Gulenists Should Be Forced to Commit Suicide. TurkeyPurge, March 26. https://turkeypurge.com/pro-govt-journalist-says-jailed-gulenists-forced-commit-suicide
  42. Turkish Realities. 2016. Nihat Zeybekci: They Will Beg Us to Kill Them. YouTube video, 1:35, August 4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0SysmcIFWB4
  43. Welch, Michael. 2006. Scapegoats of September 11th: Hate Crimes & State Crimes in the War on Terror. New Brunswick/London: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Yardimci-Geyikçi, Şebnem. 2014. Gezi Park Protests in Turkey: A Party Politics View. The Political Quarterly 85 (4): 445–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yavuz, M. Hakan, and John L. Esposito. 2003. Turkish Islam and the Secular State: The Gülen Movement. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Yilmaz, Ihsan, Greg Barton, and James Barry. 2017. The Decline and Resurgence of Turkish Islamism: The Story of Tayyip Erdoğan’s AKP. Citizenship and Globalisation Research Papers 1 (1): 48–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zeynalov, Mahir. 2017. One Year on, Turkey’s Coup Attempt Is Still a Censored Subject. Globe Post, July 15. https://www.theglobepost.com/2017/07/15/one-year-on-turkeys-coup-attempt-still-a-censored-subject/

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cemil Alkan
    • 1
  1. 1.Freelance ResearcherSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations