Advertisement

What Thwarts the Use of the Non-liability Provision?

  • Julia Maria Muraszkiewicz
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Victims and Victimology book series (PSVV)

Abstract

Trafficked persons have to convince society that they are victims. They need to show that they are virtuous and deserving of state funds and protection and persuade against being labelled as criminals who should be punished.

References

  1. Allain, J. (2009). A Response to Anne Gallagher by Jean Allain. Opinio Juris [Online]. http://opiniojuris.org/2009/06/08/a-response-to-anne-gallagher-by-jean-allain/.
  2. Andrijasevic, R. (2007). Beautiful Dead Bodies: Gender, Migration and Representation in Anti-Trafficking Campaigns. Feminist Review, 86, 24–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bales, K. (2005). Understanding Global Slavery: A Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bales, K. (2007). Ending Slavery How We Free Today’s Slaves. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bales, K., & Robbins, P. T. (2001). No One Shall Be Held in Slavery or Servitude: A Critical Analysis of International Slavery Agreements and Concepts of Slavery. Human Rights Review, 2(2), 18–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brunovskis, A., & Surtees, R. (2008). Agency or Illness-The Conceptualization of Trafficking: Victims’ Choices and Behaviors in the Assistance System. Gender, Technology and Development, 12(1), 53–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carlen, P. (1985). Criminal Women. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  8. Christie, N. (1986). From Crime Policy to Victim Policy. In E. A. Fattah (Ed.), From Crime Policy to Victim Policy. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  9. Chuang, J. (2015). The Challenges and Perils of Reframing Trafficking as “Modern-Day Slavery”. Anti-Trafficking Review, 5, 146–149.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, L. E., Kluegel, J. R., & Land, K. C. (1981). Social Inequality and Predatory Criminal Victimization: An Exposition and Test of a Formal Theory. American Sociological Review, 46, 505–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davidson, J. O. (2006). Will the Real Sex Slave Please Stand Up? Feminist Review, 83, 4–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Del Zotto, A., & Jones, A. (2002). Male-On-Male Sexual Violence in Wartime: Human Rights’ Last Taboo? Paper Presented to the Congress of the International Studies Association (ISA), New Orleans, March [Online]. http://adamjones.freeservers.com/malerape.htm.
  13. Gallagher, A. (2009). Human Rights and Human Trafficking: Quagmire or Firm Ground? A Response to James Hathaway. Virginia Journal of International Law, 49(4), 789–848.Google Scholar
  14. Gilani, S. (2010). Transforming the ‘Perpetrator’ into ‘Victim’: The Effect of Gendering Violence on the Legal and Practical Responses to Women’s Political Violence. Australian Journal of Gender and Law, 1 [Online]. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2569106.
  15. Hadijatou Mani Koraou V The Republic of Niger, Economic Community of West African States Community Court of Justice, Ecw/Ccj/Jud/06/08, Judgment of 27 October 2008.Google Scholar
  16. Howard, N. (2014). Teenage Labor Migration and Antitrafficking Policy in West Africa. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 653(1), 124–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoyle, C., Bosworth, M., & Dempsey, M. (2011). Labelling the Victims of Sex Trafficking: Exploring the Borderland Between Rhetoric and Reality. Social & Legal Studies, 20(3), 313–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jahic, G., & Finckenaeur, J. O. (2005). Representations and Misrepresentations of Human Trafficking. Trends in Organised Crime, 8(3), 24–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kara, S. (2009). Sex Trafficking: Inside of the Business of Modern-Day Slavery. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  20. L.E. v. Greece, Appl. No. 71545/12, 21 January 2016.Google Scholar
  21. Mawby, R. I., & Walklate, S. (1994). Critica Victimology. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. McEvoy, K., & McConnachie, K. (2016). Victimhood and Transnatioal Justice. In D. Spencer, & S. Walklate, (Eds.), Reconceptualizing Critical Victimology. London: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  23. O’Brien, E. (2013). Ideal Victims in Human Trafficking Awareness Campaigns. In K. Carrington, M. Ball, E. O’Brien, & J. T. Marcellus (Eds.), Crime, Justice and Social Democracy: International Perspectives (pp. 315–326). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  24. O’Connell Davidson, J. (2010). New Slavery, Old Binaries: Human Trafficking and the Borders of ‘Freeom’. Global Networks, 10(2), 244–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. R v. VSJ, ADC, VCL, NTN, DN, AA and Anti-Slavery International, [2017] EWCA Crim 36.Google Scholar
  26. Rijken, C., & Römkens, R. (2011). Trafficking for Sexual Purposes as a Globalized Shadow Economy: Human Security as the Tool to Facilitate a Human Rights Based Approach. In J. Dijk & R. Letschert (Eds.), The New Faces of Victimhood (pp. 73–98). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Scarpa, S. (2008). Trafficking in Human Beings: Modern Slavery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schloenhardt, A., & Markey-Towler, R. (2016). Non-criminalisation of Victims of Trafficking in Persons—Principles, Promises and Perspectives. Groningen Journal of International Law, 4(1), 10–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Segrave, M., Milivojevvic, S., & Pickering, S. (2009). Sex Trafficking: International Context and Response. Portland: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  30. Seibel, C. L. (2014). Human Trafficking and the History of Slavery in America. In M. J. Palmiotto (Ed.), Combatting Human Trafficking: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  31. Siller, N. (2016). Modern Slavery. Does International Law Distinguish Between Slavery, Enslavement and Trafficking? Journal of International Criminal Justice, 14, 405–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sorensen, P. (2003). New Perspectives and Policies on Protection of Victims. Brussels: The European Parliament.Google Scholar
  33. Srikantiah, J. (2007). Perfect Victims and Real Survivors: The Iconic Victim in Domestic Human Trafficking Law. Boston University Law Review, 87, 157–211.Google Scholar
  34. Stoyanova, V. (2015). Human Trafficking and Slavery Reconsidered: Conceptual Limits and States’ Positive Obligations. Lund: Lund University.Google Scholar
  35. Stoyanova, V. (2016). L.E. v. Greece: Human Trafficking and States’ Positive Obligations [Online]. https://strasbourgobservers.com/2016/02/02/l-e-v-greece-human-trafficking-and-states-positive-obligations/.
  36. Stringer, R. (2013). Vulnerability After Wounding: Feminism, Rape Law, and the Differend. SubStance, 42(3), 148–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Turner, I. (2014). Positive Obligations and Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights: A defence of the UK’s Human Rights Act 1998. The International Journal of Human Rights, 18(1), 94–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tyler, K. A., & Beal, M. R. (2010). The High-Risk Environment of Homeless Young Adults: Consequences for Physical and Sexual Victimization. Sociology Department, Faculty Publications, 96, 101–115.Google Scholar
  39. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2009). Anti-human Trafficking Manual for Criminal Justice Practitioners, Module 4—Control Methods in Trafficking in Persons [Online]. https://www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/TIP_module4_Ebook.pdf.
  40. Van Dijk, J. (1999). Introducing Victimology. In J. van Dijk, R. R. H. van Kaam, & J. Wemrners (Eds.), Caring for Crime Victims (pp. 1–13). New York: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  41. Von Hentig, H. (1948). The Criminal and His Victim. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Wilson, M., & O’Brien, E. (2016). Constructing the Ideal Victim in the United States of America’s Annual Trafficking in Persons Reports. Crime Law and Social Change, 65(1–2), 29–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia Maria Muraszkiewicz
    • 1
  1. 1.Trilateral Research & ConsultingLondonUK

Personalised recommendations