Advertisement

How States Have Implemented the Non-liability Provision

  • Julia Maria Muraszkiewicz
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Victims and Victimology book series (PSVV)

Abstract

Previous chapters considered the meaning of, and the obligations imposed by Article 8 (Directive 2011/36 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims) and Article 26 (the 2005 Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings).

References

  1. Anti-trafficking Monitoring Group (ATMG). (2013). In the Dock [Online]. http://www.antislavery.org/includes/documents/cm_docs/2013/i/inthedock_final_small_file.pdf.
  2. Arnolds, E. B., Garland, N. F., & Garlandt, N. F. (1974). The Defense of Necessity in Criminal Law: The Right to Choose the Lesser Evil. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 65(3), 289–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blackstone, W. (1941). Commentaries on the Laws of England. Saint Paul: West.Google Scholar
  4. Bohlander, M. (2006). Of Shipwrecked Sailors, Unborn Children, Conjoined Twins and Hijacked Airplanes—Taking Human Life and the Defence of Necessity. The Journal of Criminal Law, 70(2), 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Case 102/79 Commission v. Belgium [1980] ECR 1980 –01473.Google Scholar
  6. Council of Europe’s Group of Experts on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings. (2013). Report Concerning the Implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings by Poland. Council of Europe [Online]. https://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/sites/antitrafficking/files/greta_report_poland_2012_en_0.pdf.
  7. Council of Europe’s Group of Experts on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings. (2015). Report Concerning the Implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings by Cyprus. Council of Europe [Online]. https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=0900001680631b96.
  8. Dao & Ors v R [2012] EWCA Crim 1717.Google Scholar
  9. Dennis, I. H. (2009). On Necessity as a Defence to Crime: Possibilities, Problems and the Limits of Justification and Excuse. Criminal Law and Philosophy, 3, 29–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Drichel, S., & Stringer, R. (2013). Vulnerability After Wounding: Feminism, Rape Law, and the Differend. SubStance, 42(3), 148–168.Google Scholar
  11. Fletcher, G. P. (2000). Rethinking Criminal Law. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Gallagher, A. (2014). Dr Anne Gallagher—Written Evidence. Submission to the Joint Committee on the Draft Modern Slavery Bill [Online]. http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/joint-select/draft-modern-slavery-bill/written-evidence/?type=Written.
  13. Heim, S. (2013). The Applicability of the Duress Defence to the Killing of Innocent Persons by Civilians. Cornell International Law Journal, 46, 165–190.Google Scholar
  14. HHJ Edmunds QC. (2014). HHJ Edmunds—Written Evidence. Submission to the Joint Committee on the Draft Modern Slavery Bill [Online]. http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/joint-select/draft-modern-slavery-bill/written-evidence/?type=Written.
  15. Hoshi, B. (2013). The Trafficking Defence: A Proposed Model for the Non-criminalisation of Trafficked Persons in International Law. Groningen Journal of International Law, 1(2), 54–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jovanovic, M. (2017). The Principle of Non-punishment of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings: A Quest for Rationale and Practical Guidance. Journal of Trafficking and Human Exploitaion, 1(1), 41–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kleemans, E. R. (2007). Organized Crime, Transit Crime, and Racketeering. Crime and Justice, 35(1), 163–215.Google Scholar
  18. Kyprianou, D. (2010). The Role of the Cyprus Attorney General’s Office in Prosecutions: Rhetoric, Ideology and Practice. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  19. Mulholland, F. QC. (2014). Frank Mulholland QC—Written Evidence. Submission to the Joint Committee on the Draft Modern Slavery Bill [Online]. http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/joint-select/draft-modern-slavery-bill/written-evidence/?type=Written.
  20. O’Neill, M. (2004). Understanding Federal Prosecutorial Declinations: An Empirical Analysis of Predictive Factors. American Criminal Law Review, 41, 1439–1498.Google Scholar
  21. OSCE Office of the Special Representative and Co-ordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings. (2013). Policy and Legislative Recommendations Towards the Effective Implementation of the Non-Punishment Provision with Regard to Victims of Trafficking. Vienna: OSCE [Online]. http://www.osce.org/secretariat/101002?download=true.
  22. Pham, J. (2015). Protecting Trafficking Victims from Prosecution: Analysis of the Modern Slavery Bill Defence [Online]. http://files.magdalenecambridge.com/pdfs/Publications/peter_peckard_prize_jp_july_2015.pdf.
  23. Piotrowicz, R. W., & Sorrentino, L. (2016). Human Trafficking and the Emergence of the Non-punishment Principle. Human Rights Law Review, 16(4), 669–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schloenhardt, A., & Markey-Towler, R. (2016). Non-criminalisation of Victims of Trafficking in Persons—Principles, Promises, and Perspectives. Groningen Journal of International Law, 4(1), 10–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2009). Anti-human Trafficking Manual for Criminal Justice Practitioners, Module 4—Control Methods in Trafficking in Persons [Online]. https://www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/TIP_module4_Ebook.pdf.
  26. Villacampa, C., & Torres, N. (2015). Trafficked Women in Prison: The Problem of Double Victimisation. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 21(1), 99–115.Google Scholar
  27. Zielińska, E., & Namysłowska-Gabrysiak, B. (2013). Transpozycja do prawa polskiego art. 8 Dyrektywy 2011/36/UE Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady w sprawie zapobiegania handlowi ludźmi i zwalczania tego procederu oraz ochrony ofiar. Warsaw: Instytut Wymiaru Sprawiedliwości [Online]. https://www.iws.org.pl/pliki/files/Jednostr.IWS_Zieli%C5%84ska%20E.,%20Namys%C5%82owska-Gabrysiak%20B._%20Zapobieg.%20handlowi%20lud%C5%BAmi.pdf.
  28. Zornosa, F. (2015). Protecting Human Trafficking Victims from Punishment and Promoting Their Rehabilitation: The Need for an Affirmative Defence. Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice, 22, 177–203.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia Maria Muraszkiewicz
    • 1
  1. 1.Trilateral Research & ConsultingLondonUK

Personalised recommendations