Drug Discovery: Concepts and Approaches

  • Varalakshmi Devi Kothamuni Reddy
  • Babajan Banaganapalli
  • Galla Rajitha


Current modern drug discovery and development was driven by complex innovative approaches, where the novel chemical moieties are identified and their pharmacological efficacy was well established. Eventhough, advancement in drug discovery approaches, drug development is still an expensive, lengthy, and difficult process associated with a high attrition rate. For developing single drug it may take about 10–15 years and cost $1–1.8 billion. This process underpins the discovery and development efforts of all pharmaceutical companies, encompassing the early stages of research, starting from target identification, proceeding to validation and then the identification of a lead compound or drug candidate. Following this identification, the drug discovery pipeline consists of hit identification, lead optimization, and determination of toxicity, with animal model testing and finally clinical studies. Once a compound fulfills all the requirements, it is subjected to the drug development process after which preclinical studies and clinical studies are performed. If the lead compound is successful, it is ultimately marketed.


Drug discovery Target identification Lead optimization Clinical trials 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Varalakshmi Devi Kothamuni Reddy
    • 1
  • Babajan Banaganapalli
    • 2
  • Galla Rajitha
    • 3
  1. 1.SKU College of Pharmaceutical SciencesSri Krishnadevaraya UniversityAnanthapuramuIndia
  2. 2.Princess Al-Jawhara Center of Excellence in Research of Hereditary Disorders, Department of Genetic Medicine, Faculty of MedicineKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Institute of Pharmaceutical TechnologySri Padmavathi Mahila ViswavidyalayamTirupatiIndia

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